October 23, 2019  |  

Efficient genome editing of a facultative thermophile using mesophilic spCas9.

Well-developed genetic tools for thermophilic microorganisms are scarce, despite their industrial and scientific relevance. Whereas highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing is on the rise in prokaryotes, it has never been employed in a thermophile. Here, we apply Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (spCas9)-based genome editing to a moderate thermophile, i.e., Bacillus smithii, including a gene deletion, gene knockout via insertion of premature stop codons, and gene insertion. We show that spCas9 is inactive in vivo above 42 °C, and we employ the wide temperature growth range of B. smithii as an induction system for spCas9 expression. Homologous recombination with plasmid-borne editing templates is performed at 45-55 °C, when spCas9 is inactive. Subsequent transfer to 37 °C allows for counterselection through production of active spCas9, which introduces lethal double-stranded DNA breaks to the nonedited cells. The developed method takes 4 days with 90, 100, and 20% efficiencies for gene deletion, knockout, and insertion, respectively. The major advantage of our system is the limited requirement for genetic parts: only one plasmid, one selectable marker, and a promoter are needed, and the promoter does not need to be inducible or well-characterized. Hence, it can be easily applied for genome editing purposes in both mesophilic and thermophilic nonmodel organisms with a limited genetic toolbox and ability to grow at, or tolerate, temperatures of 37 and at or above 42 °C.

September 22, 2019  |  

Analysis of the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglet fed with epidermal growth factor-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The bacterial community of the small intestine is a key factor that has strong influence on the health of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in mammals during and shortly after weaning. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the diets of supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) on the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglets.Revealed in this study, at day 7, 14 and 21, respectively, the compositional sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA in the duodenum had no marked difference in microbial diversity from the phylum to species levels between the INVSc1(EV) and other recombinant strains encompassing INVSc1-EE(+), INVSc1-TE(-), and INVSc1-IE(+). Furthermore, the populations of potentially enterobacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Prevotella) and probiotic (e.g., Lactobacilli and Lactococcus) also remained unchanged among recombinant S. cerevisiae groups (P?>?0.05). However, the compositional sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA in the duodenum revealed significant difference in microbial diversity from phylum to species levels between the control group and recombinant S. cerevisiae groups. In terms of the control group (the lack of S. cerevisiae), these data confirmed that dietary exogenous S. cerevisiae had the feasibility to be used as a supplement for enhancing potentially probiotic (e.g., Lactobacilli and Lactococcus) (P?

September 22, 2019  |  

PCR and omics based techniques to study the diversity, ecology and biology of anaerobic fungi: Insights, challenges andopportunities.

Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are common inhabitants of the digestive tract of mammalian herbivores, and in the rumen, can account for up to 20% of the microbial biomass. Anaerobic fungi play a primary role in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. They also have a syntrophic interaction with methanogenic archaea, which increases their fiber degradation activity. To date, nine anaerobic fungal genera have been described, with further novel taxonomic groupings known to exist based on culture-independent molecular surveys. However, the true extent of their diversity may be even more extensively underestimated as anaerobic fungi continue being discovered in yet unexplored gut and non-gut environments. Additionally many studies are now known to have used primers that provide incomplete coverage of the Neocallimastigomycota. For ecological studies the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) has been the taxonomic marker of choice, but due to various limitations the large subunit rRNA (LSU) is now being increasingly used. How the continued expansion of our knowledge regarding anaerobic fungal diversity will impact on our understanding of their biology and ecological role remains unclear; particularly as it is becoming apparent that anaerobic fungi display niche differentiation. As a consequence, there is a need to move beyond the broad generalization of anaerobic fungi as fiber-degraders, and explore the fundamental differences that underpin their ability to exist in distinct ecological niches. Application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to their study in pure/mixed cultures and environmental samples will be invaluable in this process. To date the genomes and transcriptomes of several characterized anaerobic fungal isolates have been successfully generated. In contrast, the application of proteomics and metabolomics to anaerobic fungal analysis is still in its infancy. A central problem for all analyses, however, is the limited functional annotation of anaerobic fungal sequence data. There is therefore an urgent need to expand information held within publicly available reference databases. Once this challenge is overcome, along with improved sample collection and extraction, the application of these techniques will be key in furthering our understanding of the ecological role and impact of anaerobic fungi in the wide range of environments they inhabit.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12, a potential host for biotechnological applications.

In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3.64 Mb chromosome and two plasmids of 59 and 56 kb. It has a total of 3.676 genes with an average genomic GC content of 48.7%. The T12 genome encodes a denitrification pathway, allowing for anaerobic respiration. The identity and localization of the responsible genes are similar to those of the denitrification pathways found in strain NG80-2. The hemicellulose utilization (HUS) locus was identified based on sequence homology against G. stearothermophilus T-6. It appeared that T12 has all the genes that are present in strain T-6 except for the arabinan degradation cluster. Instead, the HUS locus of strain T12 contains genes for both an inositol and a pectate degradation pathway. Strain T12 has complete pathways for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine, all 20 amino acids and several vitamins except D-biotin. The host-defense systems present comprise a Type II and a Type III restriction-modification system, as well as a CRISPR-Cas Type II system. It is concluded that G. thermodenitrificans T12 is a potentially interesting candidate for industrial applications.

September 22, 2019  |  

Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of the hybrid fungal plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum display a mosaic structure

Allopolyploidization, genome duplication through interspecific hybridization, is an important evolutionary mechanism that can enable organisms to adapt to environmental changes or stresses. This increased adaptive potential of allopolyploids can be particularly relevant for plant pathogens in their quest for host immune response evasion. Allodiploidization likely caused the shift in host range of the fungal pathogen plant Verticillium longisporum, as V. longisporum mainly infects Brassicaceae plants in contrast to haploid Verticillium spp. In this study, we investigated the allodiploid genome structure of V. longisporum and its evolution in the hybridization aftermath. The nuclear genome of V. longisporum displays a mosaic structure, as numerous contigs consists of sections of both parental origins. V. longisporum encountered extensive genome rearrangements, whereas the contribution of gene conversion is negligible. Thus, the mosaic genome structure mainly resulted from genomic rearrangements between parental chromosome sets. Furthermore, a mosaic structure was also found in the mitochondrial genome, demonstrating its bi-parental inheritance. In conclusion, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of V. longisporum parents interacted dynamically in the hybridization aftermath. Conceivably, novel combinations of DNA sequence of different parental origin facilitated genome stability after hybridization and consecutive niche adaptation of V. longisporum.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genotype assembly, biological activity and adaptation of spatially separated isolates of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus.

The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infects S. litura and is recognized as a potential candidate to control this insect. Twenty-two NPV isolates were collected from S. litura from different agro-ecological zones (with collection sites up to 600?km apart) and cropping systems in Pakistan to see whether there is spatial dispersal and adaptation of the virus and/or adaptation to crops. Therefore, the genetic make-up and biological activity of these isolates was measured. Among the SpltNPV isolates tested for speed of kill in 3rd instar larvae of S. litura, TAX1, SFD1, SFD2 and GRW1 were significantly faster killing isolates than other Pakistani isolates. Restriction fragment length analysis of the DNA showed that the Pakistan SpltNPV isolates are all variants of a single SpltNPV biotype. The isolates could be grouped into three genogroups (A-C). The speed of kill of genogroup A viruses was higher than in group C according to a Cox’ proportional hazards analysis. Sequence analysis showed that the Pakistan SpltNPV isolates are more closely related to each other than to the SpltNPV type species G2 (Pang et al., 2001). This suggests a single introduction of SpltNPV into Pakistan. The SpltNPV-PAK isolates are distinct from Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus. There was a strong correlation between geographic spread and the genetic variation of SpltNPV, and a marginally significant correlation between the latter and the cropping system. The faster killing isolates may be good candidates for biological control of S. litura in Pakistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

September 22, 2019  |  

Homogenization of sub-genome secretome gene expression patterns in the allodiploid fungus Verticillium longisporum

Allopolyploidization, genome duplication through interspecific hybridization, is an important evolutionary mechanism that can enable organisms to adapt to environmental changes or stresses. The increased adaptive potential of allopolyploids can be particularly relevant for plant pathogens in their ongoing quest for host immune response evasion. To this end, plant pathogens secrete a plethora of molecules that enable host colonization. Allodiploidization has resulted in the new plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum that infects different hosts than haploid Verticillium species. To reveal the impact of allodiploidization on plant pathogen evolution, we studied the genome and transcriptome dynamics of V. longisporum using next-generation sequencing. V. longisporum genome evolution is characterized by extensive chromosomal rearrangements, between as well as within parental chromosome sets, leading to a mosaic genome structure. In comparison to haploid Verticillium species, V. longisporum genes display stronger signs of positive selection. The expression patterns of the two sub-genomes show remarkable resemblance, suggesting that the parental gene expression patterns homogenized upon hybridization. Moreover, whereas V. longisporum genes encoding secreted proteins frequently display differential expression between the parental sub-genomes in culture medium, expression patterns homogenize upon plant colonization. Collectively, our results illustrate of the adaptive potential of allodiploidy mediated by the interplay of two sub-genomes. Author summary Hybridization followed by whole-genome duplication, so-called allopolyploidization, provides genomic flexibility that is beneficial for survival under stressful conditions or invasiveness into new habitats. Allopolyploidization has mainly been studied in plants, but also occurs in other organisms, including fungi. Verticillium longisporum, an emerging fungal pathogen on brassicaceous plants, arose by allodiploidization between two Verticillium spp. We used comparative genomics to reveal the plastic nature of the V. longisporum genomes, showing that parental chromosome sets recombined extensively, resulting in a mosaic genome pattern. Furthermore, we show that non-synonymous substitutions frequently occurred in V. longisporum. Moreover, we reveal that expression patterns of genes encoding secreted proteins homogenized between the V. longisporum sub-genomes upon plant colonization. In conclusion, our results illustrate the large adaptive potential upon genome hybridization for fungi mediated by genomic plasticity and interaction between sub-genomes.

September 22, 2019  |  

Investigating the central metabolism of Clostridium thermosuccinogenes.

Clostridium thermosuccinogenes is a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium able to convert various carbohydrates to succinate and acetate as main fermentation products. Genomes of the four publicly available strains have been sequenced, and the genome of the type strain has been closed. The annotated genomes were used to reconstruct the central metabolism, and enzyme assays were used to validate annotations and to determine cofactor specificity. The genes were identified for the pathways to all fermentation products, as well as for the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway. Notably, a candidate transaldolase was lacking, and transcriptomics during growth on glucose versus that on xylose did not provide any leads to potential transaldolase genes or alternative pathways connecting the C5 with the C3/C6 metabolism. Enzyme assays showed xylulokinase to prefer GTP over ATP, which could be of importance for engineering xylose utilization in related thermophilic species of industrial relevance. Furthermore, the gene responsible for malate dehydrogenase was identified via heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent assays with the cell extract, which has proven to be a simple and powerful method for the basal characterization of thermophilic enzymes.IMPORTANCE Running industrial fermentation processes at elevated temperatures has several advantages, including reduced cooling requirements, increased reaction rates and solubilities, and a possibility to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of a pretreated biomass. Most studies with thermophiles so far have focused on bioethanol production. Clostridium thermosuccinogenes seems an attractive production organism for organic acids, succinic acid in particular, from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars. This study provides valuable insights into its central metabolism and GTP and PPi cofactor utilization. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

September 22, 2019  |  

A high-quality genome sequence of Rosa chinensis to elucidate ornamental traits.

Rose is the world’s most important ornamental plant, with economic, cultural and symbolic value. Roses are cultivated worldwide and sold as garden roses, cut flowers and potted plants. Roses are outbred and can have various ploidy levels. Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. We produced a doubled haploid rose line (‘HapOB’) from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and generated a rose genome assembly anchored to seven pseudo-chromosomes (512?Mb with N50 of 3.4?Mb and 564 contigs). The length of 512?Mb represents 90.1-96.1% of the estimated haploid genome size of rose. Of the assembly, 95% is contained in only 196 contigs. The anchoring was validated using high-density diploid and tetraploid genetic maps. We delineated hallmark chromosomal features, including the pericentromeric regions, through annotation of transposable element families and positioned centromeric repeats using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The rose genome displays extensive synteny with the Fragaria vesca genome, and we delineated only two major rearrangements. Genetic diversity was analysed using resequencing data of seven diploid and one tetraploid Rosa species selected from various sections of the genus. Combining genetic and genomic approaches, we identified potential genetic regulators of key ornamental traits, including prickle density and the number of flower petals. A rose APETALA2/TOE homologue is proposed to be the major regulator of petal number in rose. This reference sequence is an important resource for studying polyploidization, meiosis and developmental processes, as we demonstrated for flower and prickle development. It will also accelerate breeding through the development of molecular markers linked to traits, the identification of the genes underlying them and the exploitation of synteny across Rosaceae.

September 22, 2019  |  

Comparative genomics and genotype-phenotype associations in Bifidobacterium breve.

Bifidobacteria are common members of the gastro-intestinal microbiota of a broad range of animal hosts. Their successful adaptation to this particular niche is linked to their saccharolytic metabolism, which is supported by a wide range of glycosyl hydrolases. In the current study a large-scale gene-trait matching (GTM) effort was performed to explore glycan degradation capabilities in B. breve. By correlating the presence/absence of genes and associated genomic clusters with growth/no-growth patterns across a dataset of 20 Bifidobacterium breve strains and nearly 80 different potential growth substrates, we not only validated the approach for a number of previously characterized carbohydrate utilization clusters, but we were also able to discover novel genetic clusters linked to the metabolism of salicin and sucrose. Using GTM, genetic associations were also established for antibiotic resistance and exopolysaccharide production, thereby identifying (novel) bifidobacterial antibiotic resistance markers and showing that the GTM approach is applicable to a variety of phenotypes. Overall, the GTM findings clearly expand our knowledge on members of the B. breve species, in particular how their variable genetic features can be linked to specific phenotypes.

September 22, 2019  |  

Large plasmidome of dairy Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03P encodes technological functions and appears highly unstable.

Important industrial traits have been linked to plasmids in Lactococcus lactis.The dairy isolate L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis FM03P was sequenced revealing the biggest plasmidome of all completely sequenced and published L. lactis strains up till now. The 12 plasmids that were identified are: pLd1 (8277 bp), pLd2 (15,218 bp), pLd3 (4242 bp), pLd4 (12,005 bp), pLd5 (7521 bp), pLd6 (3363 bp), pLd7 (30,274 bp), pLd8 (47,015 bp), pLd9 (15,313 bp), pLd10 (39,563 bp), pLd11 (9833 bp) and pLd12 (3321 bp). Structural analysis of the repB promoters and the RepB proteins showed that eleven of the plasmids replicate via the theta-type mechanism, while only plasmid pLd3 replicates via a rolling-circle replication mechanism. Plasmids pLd2, pLd7 and pLd10 contain a highly similar operon involved in mobilisation of the plasmids. Examination of the twelve plasmids of L. lactis FM03P showed that 10 of the plasmids carry putative genes known to be important for growth and survival in the dairy environment. These genes encode technological functions such as lactose utilisation (lacR-lacABCDFEGX), citrate uptake (citQRP), peptide degradation (pepO and pepE) and oligopeptide uptake (oppDFBCA), uptake of magnesium and manganese (2 mntH, corA), exopolysaccharides production (eps operon), bacteriophage resistance (1 hsdM, 1 hsdR and 7 different hsdS genes of a type I restriction-modification system, an operon of three genes encoding a putative type II restriction-modification system and an abortive infection gene) and stress resistance (2 uspA, cspC and cadCA). Acquisition of these plasmids most likely facilitated the adaptation of the recipient strain to the dairy environment. Some plasmids were already lost during a single propagation step signifying their instability in the absence of a selective pressure.Lactococcus lactis FM03P carries 12 plasmids important for its adaptation to the dairy environment. Some of the plasmids were easily lost demonstrating that propagation outside the dairy environment should be minimised when studying dairy isolates of L. lactis.

September 22, 2019  |  

Involvement of Burkholderiaceae and sulfurous volatiles in disease-suppressive soils.

Disease-suppressive soils are ecosystems in which plants suffer less from root infections due to the activities of specific microbial consortia. The characteristics of soils suppressive to specific fungal root pathogens are comparable to those of adaptive immunity in animals, as reported by Raaijmakers and Mazzola (Science 352:1392-3, 2016), but the mechanisms and microbial species involved in the soil suppressiveness are largely unknown. Previous taxonomic and metatranscriptome analyses of a soil suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani revealed that members of the Burkholderiaceae family were more abundant and more active in suppressive than in non-suppressive soils. Here, isolation, phylogeny, and soil bioassays revealed a significant disease-suppressive activity for representative isolates of Burkholderia pyrrocinia, Paraburkholderia caledonica, P. graminis, P. hospita, and P. terricola. In vitro antifungal activity was only observed for P. graminis. Comparative genomics and metabolite profiling further showed that the antifungal activity of P. graminis PHS1 was associated with the production of sulfurous volatile compounds encoded by genes not found in the other four genera. Site-directed mutagenesis of two of these genes, encoding a dimethyl sulfoxide reductase and a cysteine desulfurase, resulted in a loss of antifungal activity both in vitro and in situ. These results indicate that specific members of the Burkholderiaceae family contribute to soil suppressiveness via the production of sulfurous volatile compounds.

September 22, 2019  |  

The linear mitochondrial genome of the quarantine chytrid Synchytrium endobioticum; insights into the evolution and recent history of an obligate biotrophic plant pathogen.

Chytridiomycota species (chytrids) belong to a basal lineage in the fungal kingdom. Inhabiting terrestrial and aquatic environments, most are free-living saprophytes but several species cause important diseases: e.g. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for worldwide amphibian decline; and Synchytrium endobioticum, causing potato wart disease. S. endobioticum has an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and isolates can be further characterized as pathotypes based on their virulence on a differential set of potato cultivars. Quarantine measures have been implemented globally to control the disease and prevent its spread. We used a comparative approach using chytrid mitogenomes to determine taxonomical relationships and to gain insights into the evolution and recent history of introductions of this plant pathogen.We assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of 30 S. endobioticum isolates and generated mitochondrial genomes for five additional chytrid species. The mitochondrial genome of S. endobioticum is linear with terminal inverted repeats which was validated by tailing and PCR amplifying the telomeric ends. Surprisingly, no conservation in organisation and orientation of mitochondrial genes was observed among the Chytridiomycota except for S. endobioticum and its sister species Synchytrium microbalum. However, the mitochondrial genome of S. microbalum is circular and comprises only a third of the 72.9 Kbp found for S. endobioticum suggesting recent linearization and expansion. Four mitochondrial lineages were identified in the S. endobioticum mitochondrial genomes. Several pathotypes occur in different lineages, suggesting that these have emerged independently. In addition, variations for polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial genome of individual isolates were observed demonstrating that S. endobioticum isolates represent a community of different genotypes. Such communities were shown to be complex and stable over time, but we also demonstrate that the use of semi-resistant potato cultivars triggers a rapid shift in the mitochondrial haplotype associated with increased virulence.Mitochondrial genomic variation shows that S. endobioticum has been introduced into Europe multiple times, that several pathotypes emerged multiple times, and that isolates represent communities of different genotypes. Our study represents the most comprehensive dataset of chytrid mitogenomes, which provides new insights into the extraordinary dynamics and evolution of mitochondrial genomes involving linearization, expansion and reshuffling.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii TUA4408L and evaluation of the antiviral activities of its extracellular polysaccharides in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

In lactic acid bacteria, the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) has been associated with some favorable technological properties as well as health-promoting benefits. Research works have shown the potential of EPS produced by lactobacilli to differentially modulate immune responses. However, most studies were performed in immune cells and few works have concentrated in the immunomodulatory activities of EPS in non-immune cells such as intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effects of EPS have not been studied in detail. In this work, we have performed a genomic characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L and evaluated the immunomodulatory and antiviral properties of its acidic (APS) and neutral (NPS) EPS in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells. Whole genome sequencing allowed the analysis of the general features of L. delbrueckii TUA4408L genome as well as the characterization of its EPS genes. A typical EPS gene cluster was found in the TUA4408L genome consisting in five highly conserved genes epsA-E, and a variable region, which includes the genes for the polymerase wzy, the flippase wzx, and seven glycosyltransferases. In addition, we demonstrated here for the first time that L. delbrueckii TUA4408L and its EPS are able to improve the resistance of PIE cells against rotavirus infection by reducing viral replication and regulating inflammatory response. Moreover, studies in PIE cells demonstrated that the TUA4408L strain and its EPS differentially modulate the antiviral innate immune response triggered by the activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). L. delbrueckii TUA4408L and its EPS are capable of increasing the activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathways leading to an improved expression of the antiviral factors interferon (IFN)-ß, Myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) and RNaseL.

September 22, 2019  |  

Forward genetics by genome sequencing uncovers the central role of the Aspergillus niger goxB locus in hydrogen peroxide induced glucose oxidase expression.

Aspergillus niger is an industrially important source for gluconic acid and glucose oxidase (GOx), a secreted commercially important flavoprotein which catalyses the oxidation of ß-D-glucose by molecular oxygen to D-glucolactone and hydrogen peroxide. Expression of goxC, the GOx encoding gene and the concomitant two step conversion of glucose to gluconic acid requires oxygen and the presence of significant amounts of glucose in the medium and is optimally induced at pH 5.5. The molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of goxC expression are, however, still enigmatic. Genetic studies aimed at understanding GOx induction have indicated the involvement of at least seven complementation groups, for none of which the molecular basis has been resolved. In this study, a mapping-by-sequencing forward genetics approach was used to uncover the molecular role of the goxB locus in goxC expression. Using the Illumina and PacBio sequencing platforms a hybrid high quality draft genome assembly of laboratory strain N402 was obtained and used as a reference for mapping of genomic reads obtained from the derivative NW103:goxB mutant strain. The goxB locus encodes a thioredoxin reductase. A deletion of the encoding gene in the N402 parent strain led to a high constitutive expression level of the GOx and the lactonase encoding genes required for the two-step conversion of glucose in gluconic acid and of the catR gene encoding catalase R. This high constitutive level of expression was observed to be irrespective of the carbon source and oxidative stress applied. A model clarifying the role of GoxB in the regulation of the expression of goxC involving hydrogen peroxide as second messenger is presented.

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