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Sunday, July 7, 2019

New insights into the diversity of the genus Faecalibacterium.

Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal bacterium, ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. This species is a functionally important member of the microbiota and studies suggest it has an impact on the physiology and health of the host. F. prausnitzii is the only identified species in the genus Faecalibacterium, but a recent study clustered strains of this species in two different phylogroups. Here, we propose the existence of distinct species in this genus through the use of comparative genomics. Briefly, we performed analyses of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, phylogenomics, whole genome Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (wgMLST), Average Nucleotide Identity…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Diversity in grain amaranths and relatives distinguished by genotyping by sequencing (GBS).

The genotyping by sequencing (GBS) method has become a molecular marker technology of choice for many crop plants because of its simultaneous discovery and evaluation of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and utility for germplasm characterization. Genome representation and complexity reduction are the basis for GBS fingerprinting and can vary by species based on genome size and other sequence characteristics. Grain amaranths are a set of three species that were domesticated in the New World to be high protein, pseudo-cereal grain crops. The goal of this research was to employ the GBS technique for diversity evaluation in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mechanisms involved in acquisition of blaNDM genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY plasmids.

blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Analysis of the genome sequence of the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, and its dried roots have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine with hydrophilic phenolic acids and tanshinones as pharmaceutically active components (Zhang et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2016). The first step of tanshinone biosynthesis is bicyclization of the general diterpene precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to copalyl diphosphate (CPP) by CPP synthases (CPSs), which is followed by a cyclization or rearrangement reaction catalyzed by kaurene synthase-like enzymes (KSL).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 55737.

Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces propionic acid as its main fermentation product. Traditionally derived from fossil fuels, environmental and sustainable issues have revived the interest in producing propionic acid using biological resources. Here, we present the closed sequence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 55737, an efficient propionic acid producer. Copyright © 2016 Luna-Flores et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain ATCC 700603.

Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain ATCC 700603, formerly known as K. pneumoniae K6, is known for producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes that can hydrolyze oxyimino-ß-lactams, resulting in resistance to these drugs. We herein report the complete genome of strain ATCC 700603 and show that the ESBL genes are plasmid-encoded. Copyright © 2016 Elliott et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Representing genetic variation with synthetic DNA standards.

The identification of genetic variation with next-generation sequencing is confounded by the complexity of the human genome sequence and by biases that arise during library preparation, sequencing and analysis. We have developed a set of synthetic DNA standards, termed ‘sequins’, that emulate human genetic features and constitute qualitative and quantitative spike-in controls for genome sequencing. Sequencing reads derived from sequins align exclusively to an artificial in silico reference chromosome, rather than the human reference genome, which allows them them to be partitioned for parallel analysis. Here we use this approach to represent common and clinically relevant genetic variation, ranging from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection.

Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18?500 years BP (12?355-24?757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism. Evolution within the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon serotype O1b lineage has been slow, with 63 SNPs describing the variance over 27 years. Isolates from the prevailing lineage are poorly/non-motile compared to a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Oryza meridionalis NQ Ng

Oryza meridionalis is an AA genome species found in Northern Australia. Phylogenetic analysis places this as the most distant of the AA genome species from domesticated rice (Oryza sativa). This makes it a key genetic resource for rice improvement. A draft nuclear genome sequence is available, and also the chloroplast genome has been sequenced from many genotypes. The high amylose starch content in these taxa may be useful for developing new rice grain characteristics. Here we have reviewed the all the research advancements that are made till today on this species.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The challenge of analyzing the sugarcane genome.

Reference genome sequences have become key platforms for genetics and breeding of the major crop species. Sugarcane is probably the largest crop produced in the world (in weight of crop harvested) but lacks a reference genome sequence. Sugarcane has one of the most complex genomes in crop plants due to the extreme level of polyploidy. The genome of modern sugarcane hybrids includes sub-genomes from two progenitors Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum with some chromosomes resulting from recombination between these sub-genomes. Advancing DNA sequencing technologies and strategies for genome assembly are making the sugarcane genome more tractable. Advances in long read…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

GtTR: Bayesian estimation of absolute tandem repeat copy number using sequence capture and high throughput sequencing.

Tandem repeats comprise significant proportion of the human genome including coding and regulatory regions. They are highly prone to repeat number variation and nucleotide mutation due to their repetitive and unstable nature, making them a major source of genomic variation between individuals. Despite recent advances in high throughput sequencing, analysis of tandem repeats in the context of complex diseases is still hindered by technical limitations. We report a novel targeted sequencing approach, which allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of repeats. We developed a Bayesian algorithm, namely – GtTR – which combines information from a reference long-read dataset with a short…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Culture- and metagenomics-enabled analyses of the Methanosphaera genus reveals their monophyletic origin and differentiation according to genome size.

The genus Methanosphaera is a well-recognized but poorly characterized member of the mammalian gut microbiome, and distinctive from Methanobrevibacter smithii for its ability to induce a pro-inflammatory response in humans. Here we have used a combination of culture- and metagenomics-based approaches to expand the representation and information for the genus, which has supported the examination of their phylogeny and physiological capacity. Novel isolates of the genus Methanosphaera were recovered from bovine rumen digesta and human stool, with the bovine isolate remarkable for its large genome size relative to other Methanosphaera isolates from monogastric hosts. To substantiate this observation, we then…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Meeting report: mobile genetic elements and genome plasticity 2018

The Mobile Genetic Elements and Genome Plasticity conference was hosted by Keystone Symposia in Santa Fe, NM USA, February 11–15, 2018. The organizers were Marlene Belfort, Evan Eichler, Henry Levin and Lynn Maquat. The goal of this conference was to bring together scientists from around the world to discuss the function of transposable elements and their impact on host species. Central themes of the meeting included recent innovations in genome analysis and the role of mobile DNA in disease and evolution. The conference included 200 scientists who participated in poster presentations, short talks selected from abstracts, and invited talks. A…

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