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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing.

Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing allows the systematic detection of chemical modifications such as methylation but has not previously been applied on a genome-wide scale. We used this approach to detect 49,311 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues and 1,407 putative 5-methylcytosine (m5C) residues in the genome of a pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. We obtained strand-specific information for methylation sites and a quantitative assessment of the frequency of methylation at each modified position. We deduced the sequence motifs recognized by the methyltransferase enzymes present in this strain without prior knowledge of their specificity. Furthermore, we found that deletion of a phage-encoded methyltransferase-endonuclease…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Modeling kinetic rate variation in third generation DNA sequencing data to detect putative modifications to DNA bases.

Current generation DNA sequencing instruments are moving closer to seamlessly sequencing genomes of entire populations as a routine part of scientific investigation. However, while significant inroads have been made identifying small nucleotide variation and structural variations in DNA that impact phenotypes of interest, progress has not been as dramatic regarding epigenetic changes and base-level damage to DNA, largely due to technological limitations in assaying all known and unknown types of modifications at genome scale. Recently, single-molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing has been reported to identify kinetic variation (KV) events that have been demonstrated to reflect epigenetic changes of every known…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Detecting DNA modifications from SMRT sequencing data by modeling sequence context dependence of polymerase kinetic.

DNA modifications such as methylation and DNA damage can play critical regulatory roles in biological systems. Single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing technology generates DNA sequences as well as DNA polymerase kinetic information that can be used for the direct detection of DNA modifications. We demonstrate that local sequence context has a strong impact on DNA polymerase kinetics in the neighborhood of the incorporation site during the DNA synthesis reaction, allowing for the possibility of estimating the expected kinetic rate of the enzyme at the incorporation site using kinetic rate information collected from existing SMRT sequencing data (historical data) covering…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The epigenomic landscape of prokaryotes.

DNA methylation acts in concert with restriction enzymes to protect the integrity of prokaryotic genomes. Studies in a limited number of organisms suggest that methylation also contributes to prokaryotic genome regulation, but the prevalence and properties of such non-restriction-associated methylation systems remain poorly understood. Here, we used single molecule, real-time sequencing to map DNA modifications including m6A, m4C, and m5C across the genomes of 230 diverse bacterial and archaeal species. We observed DNA methylation in nearly all (93%) organisms examined, and identified a total of 834 distinct reproducibly methylated motifs. This data enabled annotation of the DNA binding specificities of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Separate F-type plasmids have shaped the evolution of the H30 subclone of Escherichia coli sequence type 131.

The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with the H30R/C1 clade, whereas an F2:A1:B- plasmid is associated with the…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Revealing complete complex KIR haplotypes phased by long-read sequencing technology

The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) region of human chromosome 19 contains up to 16 genes for natural killer (NK) cell receptors that recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/peptide complexes and other ligands. The KIR proteins fulfill functional roles in infections, pregnancy, autoimmune diseases and transplantation. However, their characterization remains a constant challenge. Not only are the genes highly homologous due to their recent evolution by tandem duplications, but the region is structurally dynamic due to frequent transposon-mediated recombination. A sequencing approach that precisely captures the complexity of KIR haplotypes for functional annotation is desirable. We present a unique approach to…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Improved maize reference genome with single-molecule technologies.

Complete and accurate reference genomes and annotations provide fundamental tools for characterization of genetic and functional variation. These resources facilitate the determination of biological processes and support translation of research findings into improved and sustainable agricultural technologies. Many reference genomes for crop plants have been generated over the past decade, but these genomes are often fragmented and missing complex repeat regions. Here we report the assembly and annotation of a reference genome of maize, a genetic and agricultural model species, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and high-resolution optical mapping. Relative to the previous reference genome, our assembly features a 52-fold increase…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Comparative genomic analyses of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus and pathogenicity on Medicago truncatula.

Clavibacter michiganensis is the most economically important gram-positive bacterial plant pathogen with subspecies that cause serious diseases of maize, wheat, tomato, potato, and alfalfa. Much less is known about pathogenesis involving gram-positive plant pathogens than is known for gram-negative bacteria. Comparative genome analyses of C. michiganensis subspecies affecting tomato, potato, and maize have provided insights on pathogenicity. In this study, we identified strains of C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus with contrasting pathogenicity on three accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula. We generated complete genome sequences for two strains and compared these to a previously sequenced strain and genome sequences of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A high-throughput approach for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria in drinking water reveals relationship between water age and Mycobacterium avium.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently detected in drinking water (DW) include species associated with human infections, as well as species rarely linked to disease. Methods for improved the recovery of NTM DNA and high-throughput identification of NTM are needed for risk assessment of NTM infection through DW exposure. In this study, different methods of recovering bacterial DNA from DW were compared, revealing that a phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method yielded two to four times as much total DNA and eight times as much NTM DNA as two commercial DNA extraction kits. This method, combined with high-throughput, single-molecule real-time sequencing of NTMrpoBgenes, allowed…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A near-complete haplotype-phased genome of the dikaryotic wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici reveals high interhaplotype diversity.

A long-standing biological question is how evolution has shaped the genomic architecture of dikaryotic fungi. To answer this, high-quality genomic resources that enable haplotype comparisons are essential. Short-read genome assemblies for dikaryotic fungi are highly fragmented and lack haplotype-specific information due to the high heterozygosity and repeat content of these genomes. Here, we present a diploid-aware assembly of the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici based on long reads using the FALCON-Unzip assembler. Transcriptome sequencing data sets were used to infer high-quality gene models and identify virulence genes involved in plant infection referred to as effectors. This…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single copy transgene integration in a transcriptionally active site for recombinant protein synthesis.

For the biomanufacturing of protein biologics, establishing stable cell lines with high transgene transcription is critical for high productivity. Modern genome engineering tools can direct transgene insertion to a specified genomic locus and can potentially become a valuable tool for cell line generation. In this study, the authors survey transgene integration sites and their transcriptional activity to identify characteristics of desirable regions. A lentivirus containing destabilized Green Fluorescent Protein (dGFP) is used to infect Chinese hamster ovary cells at a low multiplicity of infection, and cells with high or low GFP fluorescence are isolated. RNA sequencing and Assay for Transposase…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A draft genome of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) provides tools for the domestication of a new winter biofuel crop.

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is being domesticated as a new winter cover crop and biofuel species for the Midwestern United States that can be double-cropped between corn and soybeans. A genome sequence will enable the use of new technologies to make improvements in pennycress. To generate a draft genome, a hybrid sequencing approach was used to generate 47 Gb of DNA sequencing reads from both the Illumina and PacBio platforms. These reads were used to assemble 6,768 genomic scaffolds. The draft genome was annotated using the MAKER pipeline, which identified 27,390 predicted protein-coding genes, with almost all of these…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome of Geobacter pickeringii G13T, a metal-reducing isolate from sedimentary kaolin deposits.

We used PacBio sequencing to assemble the genome of the pristine freshwater isolate Geobacter pickeringii G13(T) into a single 3,618,700-bp circular chromosome polished to 99.999% accuracy (quality value [QV], 50). This isolate shares several features with other Geobacter spp., including genes for degradation of aromatics and an abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes. Copyright © 2015 Badalamenti and Bond.

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