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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) typhoid is a major global health threat affecting many countries where the disease is endemic. Here whole-genome sequence analysis of 1,832 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) identifies a single dominant MDR lineage, H58, that has emerged and spread throughout Asia and Africa over the last 30 years. Our analysis identifies numerous transmissions of H58, including multiple transfers from Asia to Africa and an ongoing, unrecognized MDR epidemic within Africa itself. Notably, our analysis indicates that H58 lineages are displacing antibiotic-sensitive isolates, transforming the global population structure of this pathogen. H58 isolates can harbor a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An in vitro deletion in ribE encoding lumazine synthase contributes to nitrofurantoin resistance in Escherichia coli.

Nitrofurantoin has been used for decades for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), but clinically significant resistance in Escherichia coli is uncommon. Nitrofurantoin concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract tend to be low, which might facilitate selection of nitrofurantoin-resistant (NIT-R) strains in the gut flora. We subjected two nitrofurantoin-susceptible intestinal E. coli strains (ST540-p and ST2747-p) to increasing nitrofurantoin concentrations under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for both susceptible isolates and selected mutants that exhibited the highest nitrofurantoin resistance levels aerobically (ST540-a and ST2747-a) and anaerobically (ST540-an and ST2747-an). ST540-a/ST540-an and ST2747-a (aerobic MICs of >64 µg/ml)…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary origins of the emergent ST796 clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium.

From early 2012, a novel clone of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (assigned the multi locus sequence type ST796) was simultaneously isolated from geographically separate hospitals in south eastern Australia and New Zealand. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of Ef_aus0233, a representative ST796 E. faecium isolate. We used PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing to establish a high quality, fully assembled genome comprising a circular chromosome of 2,888,087 bp and five plasmids. Comparison of Ef_aus0233 to other E. faecium genomes shows Ef_aus0233 is a member of the epidemic hospital-adapted lineage and has evolved from an ST555-like ancestral progenitor by the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic analysis of ST88 community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ghana.

The emergence and evolution of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains in Africa is poorly understood. However, one particular MRSA lineage called ST88, appears to be rapidly establishing itself as an “African” CA-MRSA clone. In this study, we employed whole genome sequencing to provide more information on the genetic background of ST88 CA-MRSA isolates from Ghana and to describe in detail ST88 CA-MRSA isolates in comparison with other MRSA lineages worldwide.We first established a complete ST88 reference genome (AUS0325) using PacBio SMRT sequencing. We then used comparative genomics to assess relatedness among 17 ST88 CA-MRSA isolates recovered from patients…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary dynamics and genomic features of the Elizabethkingia anophelis 2015 to 2016 Wisconsin outbreak strain.

An atypically large outbreak of Elizabethkingia anophelis infections occurred in Wisconsin. Here we show that it was caused by a single strain with thirteen characteristic genomic regions. Strikingly, the outbreak isolates show an accelerated evolutionary rate and an atypical mutational spectrum. Six phylogenetic sub-clusters with distinctive temporal and geographic dynamics are revealed, and their last common ancestor existed approximately one year before the first recognized human infection. Unlike other E. anophelis, the outbreak strain had a disrupted DNA repair mutY gene caused by insertion of an integrative and conjugative element. This genomic change probably contributed to the high evolutionary rate…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 strain isolated from a patient with Legionnaires’ disease.

Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, predominantly found in soil and composted plant material, causes the majority of cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in New Zealand. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an L. longbeachae serogroup 1 (sg1) isolate derived from a patient hospitalized with LD in Christchurch, New Zealand. Copyright © 2017 Slow et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

CLOVE: classification of genomic fusions into structural variation events.

A precise understanding of structural variants (SVs) in DNA is important in the study of cancer and population diversity. Many methods have been designed to identify SVs from DNA sequencing data. However, the problem remains challenging because existing approaches suffer from low sensitivity, precision, and positional accuracy. Furthermore, many existing tools only identify breakpoints, and so not collect related breakpoints and classify them as a particular type of SV. Due to the rapidly increasing usage of high throughput sequencing technologies in this area, there is an urgent need for algorithms that can accurately classify complex genomic rearrangements (involving more than…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of the polymyxin D synthetase biosynthetic cluster and product profile of Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401.

The increasing prevalence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria has stimulated the search for improved polymyxin lipopeptides. Here we describe the sequence and product profile for polymyxin D nonribosomal peptide synthetase from Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401. The polymyxin D synthase gene cluster comprised five genes that encoded ABC transporters (pmxC and pmxD) and enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of polymyxin D (pmxA, pmxB, and pmxE). Unlike polymyxins B and E, polymyxin D contains d-Ser at position 3 as opposed to l-a,?-diaminobutyric acid and has an l-Thr at position 7 rather than l-Leu. Module 3 of pmxE harbored an auxiliary epimerization domain that catalyzes…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A supervised statistical learning approach for accurate Legionella pneumophila source attribution during outbreaks.

Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires’ disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure, with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based on L. pneumophila core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) comparisons eliminates ambiguity for defining outbreak clusters and accurately predicts exposure sources for clinical cases. We illustrate the performance of our method by genome comparisons…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of an Australian monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolate (TW-Stm6) carrying a large plasmid with multiple antimicrobial resistance genes.

We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Dyall-Smith et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Natural product diversity associated with the nematode symbionts Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus.

Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species dedicate a large amount of resources to the production of specialized metabolites derived from non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS). Both bacteria undergo symbiosis with nematodes, which is followed by an insect pathogenic phase. So far, the molecular basis of this tripartite relationship and the exact roles that individual metabolites and metabolic pathways play have not been well understood. To close this gap, we have significantly expanded the database for comparative genomics studies in these bacteria. Clustering the genes encoded in the individual genomes into hierarchical orthologous groups reveals a high-resolution picture of functional…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

GRIDSS: sensitive and specific genomic rearrangement detection using positional de Bruijn graph assembly.

The identification of genomic rearrangements with high sensitivity and specificity using massively parallel sequencing remains a major challenge, particularly in precision medicine and cancer research. Here, we describe a new method for detecting rearrangements, GRIDSS (Genome Rearrangement IDentification Software Suite). GRIDSS is a multithreaded structural variant (SV) caller that performs efficient genome-wide break-end assembly prior to variant calling using a novel positional de Bruijn graph-based assembler. By combining assembly, split read, and read pair evidence using a probabilistic scoring, GRIDSS achieves high sensitivity and specificity on simulated, cell line, and patient tumor data, recently winning SV subchallenge #5 of the…

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