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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome sequence of Clostridium indolis DSM 755(T.).

Clostridium indolis DSM 755(T) is a bacterium commonly found in soils and the feces of birds and mammals. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the ecology or physiology of this species. However, close relatives, C. saccharolyticum and C. hathewayi, have demonstrated interesting metabolic potentials related to plant degradation and human health. The genome of C. indolis DSM 755(T) reveals an abundance of genes in functional groups associated with the transport and utilization of carbohydrates, as well as citrate, lactate, and aromatics. Ecologically relevant gene clusters related to nitrogen fixation and a unique type of bacterial microcompartment, the CoAT BMC,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the lignin-degrading bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2.

In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated Klebsiella sp. strain BRL6-2 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole carbon source. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Bisley watershed at the Ridge site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are characterized by cycles of iron oxidation and reduction. Genome sequencing was targeted because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically and lignocellulolytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome in RNase HI-deficient cells: multiple initiation regions and fork dynamics.

DNA replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at a single origin, oriC, dependent on initiation protein DnaA. However, replication can be initiated elsewhere on the chromosome at multiple ectopic oriK sites. Genetic evidence indicates that initiation from oriK depends on RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), which are normally removed by enzymes such as RNase HI to prevent oriK from misfiring during normal growth. Initiation from oriK sites occurs in RNase HI-deficient mutants, and possibly in wild-type cells under certain unusual conditions. Despite previous work, the locations of oriK and their impact on genome stability remain unclear. We combined 2D gel electrophoresis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003,a strain with high antimicrobial potential against foodborne and vaginal pathogens.

Lactic acid bacteria play increasingly important roles in the food industry. Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 strain was isolated from traditional yogurt in Inner Mongolia, China. It has shown high antimicrobial activity against selected foodborne and vaginal pathogens. In this study, we investigated and analyzed its complete genome sequence. The S. thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 genome comprise of a 1,899,956 bp chromosome with a G+C content of 38.92%, 1,995 genes, and 6 rRNAs. With the exception of S. thermophilus M17TZA496, S. thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 has more tRNAs (amino acid coding genes) compared to some S. thermophilus strains available on the National Centre…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

OxyR-dependent formation of DNA methylation patterns in OpvABOFF and OpvABON cell lineages of Salmonella enterica.

Phase variation of the Salmonella enterica opvAB operon generates a bacterial lineage with standard lipopolysaccharide structure (OpvAB(OFF)) and a lineage with shorter O-antigen chains (OpvAB(ON)). Regulation of OpvAB lineage formation is transcriptional, and is controlled by the LysR-type factor OxyR and by DNA adenine methylation. The opvAB regulatory region contains four sites for OxyR binding (OBSA-D), and four methylatable GATC motifs (GATC1-4). OpvAB(OFF) and OpvAB(ON) cell lineages display opposite DNA methylation patterns in the opvAB regulatory region: (i) in the OpvAB(OFF) state, GATC1 and GATC3 are non-methylated, whereas GATC2 and GATC4 are methylated; (ii) in the OpvAB(ON) state, GATC2 and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequences of the turfgrass pathogen Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (F. T. Bennett) is one of the most economically important pathogens on high-amenity cool-season turfgrasses, where it causes dollar spot. To understand the genetic mechanisms of fungicide resistance, which has become highly prevalent, the whole genomes of two isolates with varied resistance levels to fungicides were sequenced. Copyright © 2016 Green et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A complete toolset for the study of Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. as a fungal-temperate grass pathosystem.

Due to their economic relevance, the study of plant pathogen interactions is of importance. However, elucidating these interactions and their underlying molecular mechanisms remains challenging since both host and pathogen need to be fully genetically accessible organisms. Here we present milestones in the establishment of a new biotrophic model pathosystem: Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. We provide a complete toolset, including an annotated fungal genome and methods for genetic manipulation of the fungus and its host plant. This toolset will enable researchers to easily study biotrophic interactions at the molecular level on both the pathogen and the host side. Moreover,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recent progress and prospects for advancing arachnid genomics

Arachnids exhibit tremendous species richness and adaptations of biomedical, industrial, and agricultural importance. Yet genomic resources for arachnids are limited, with the first few spider and scorpion genomes becoming accessible in the last four years. We review key insights from these genome projects, and recommend additional genomes for sequencing, emphasizing taxa of greatest value to the scientific community. We suggest greater sampling of spiders whose genomes are understudied but hold important protein recipes for silk and venom production. We further recommend arachnid genomes to address significant evolutionary topics, including the phenotypic impact of genome duplications. A barrier to high-quality arachnid…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Overview of the germline and expressed repertoires of the TRB genes in Sus scrofa.

The a/ß T cell receptor (TR) is a complex heterodimer that recognizes antigenic peptides and binds to major histocompatibility complex (MH) molecules. Both a and ß chains are encoded by different genes localized on two distinct chromosomal loci: TRA and TRB. The present study employed the recent release of the swine genome assembly to define the genomic organization of the TRB locus. According to the sequencing data, the pig TRB locus spans approximately 400 kb of genomic DNA and consists of 38 TRBV genes belonging to 24 subgroups located upstream of three in tandem TRBD-J-C clusters, which are followed by…

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