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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The complete genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Mycobacterium haemophilum explains its unique culture requirements.

Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging pathogen associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, most commonly skin infections in immunocompromised individuals. M. haemophilum exhibits a unique requirement for iron supplementation to support its growth in culture, but the basis for this property and how it may shape pathogenesis is unclear. Using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Sanger sequencing, the complete genome sequence of M. haemophilum was determined. Guided by this sequence, experiments were performed to define the basis for the unique growth requirements of M. haemophilum. We found that M. haemophilum, unlike many other mycobacteria, is unable to synthesize iron-binding siderophores known as mycobactins…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

IncI1 plasmids encoding various blaCTX-Ms contributed to ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis in China.

Resistance to extended spectrum ß-lactams in Salmonella, in particular serotypes such as S. Enteritidis that are frequently associated with clinical infections, is a serious public health concern. In this study, phenotypic characterization of 433 clinical S. Enteritidis strains obtained from a nationwide collection of China CDC during the period of 2005~2010 depicted an increasing trend of resistance to ceftriaxone from 2008 onwards. Seventeen (4%) of the strains were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, 7% to ciprofloxacin and 0.7% to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Most of the ceftriaxone-resistant S. Enteritidis strains (15/17) were genetically unrelated, and originated from Henan province.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Circlator: automated circularization of genome assemblies using long sequencing reads.

The assembly of DNA sequence data is undergoing a renaissance thanks to emerging technologies capable of producing reads tens of kilobases long. Assembling complete bacterial and small eukaryotic genomes is now possible, but the final step of circularizing sequences remains unsolved. Here we present Circlator, the first tool to automate assembly circularization and produce accurate linear representations of circular sequences. Using Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore data, Circlator correctly circularized 26 of 27 circularizable sequences, comprising 11 chromosomes and 12 plasmids from bacteria, the apicoplast and mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum and a human mitochondrion. Circlator is available at http://sanger-pathogens.github.io/circlator/ .

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome analysis of Kingella kingae strain KWG1 reveals how a ß-Lactamase gene inserted in the chromosome of this species.

We describe the genome of a penicillinase-producing Kingella kingae strain (KWG1), the first to be isolated in continental Europe, whose blaTEM-1 gene was, for the first time in this species, found to be chromosomally inserted. The blaTEM gene is located in an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) inserted in Met-tRNA and comprising genes that encode resistance to sulfonamides, streptomycin, and tetracycline. This ICE is homologous to resistance-conferring plasmids of K. kingae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The functions of DNA methylation by CcrM in Caulobacter crescentus: a global approach.

DNA methylation is involved in a diversity of processes in bacteria, including maintenance of genome integrity and regulation of gene expression. Here, using Caulobacter crescentus as a model, we exploit genome-wide experimental methods to uncover the functions of CcrM, a DNA methyltransferase conserved in most Alphaproteobacteria. Using single molecule sequencing, we provide evidence that most CcrM target motifs (GANTC) switch from a fully methylated to a hemi-methylated state when they are replicated, and back to a fully methylated state at the onset of cell division. We show that DNA methylation by CcrM is not required for the control of the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales), featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure) and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Type I restriction enzymes and their relatives.

Type I restriction enzymes (REases) are large pentameric proteins with separate restriction (R), methylation (M) and DNA sequence-recognition (S) subunits. They were the first REases to be discovered and purified, but unlike the enormously useful Type II REases, they have yet to find a place in the enzymatic toolbox of molecular biologists. Type I enzymes have been difficult to characterize, but this is changing as genome analysis reveals their genes, and methylome analysis reveals their recognition sequences. Several Type I REases have been studied in detail and what has been learned about them invites greater attention. In this article, we…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311 (NCTC 74), a reference strain of multidrug resistance, as achieved by use of PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time technology.

We report the first complete genomic sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC 13311, the leading food-borne pathogen and a reference strain used in drug resistance studies. De novo assembly with PacBio sequencing completed its chromosome and one plasmid. They will accelerate the investigation into multidrug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium. Copyright © 2014 Terabayashi et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Enterobacter asburiae strain L1: complete genome and whole genome optical mapping analysis of a quorum sensing bacterium.

Enterobacter asburiae L1 is a quorum sensing bacterium isolated from lettuce leaves. In this study, for the first time, the complete genome of E. asburiae L1 was sequenced using the single molecule real time sequencer (PacBio RSII) and the whole genome sequence was verified by using optical genome mapping (OpGen) technology. In our previous study, E. asburiae L1 has been reported to produce AHLs, suggesting the possibility of virulence factor regulation which is quorum sensing dependent. This evoked our interest to study the genome of this bacterium and here we present the complete genome of E. asburiae L1, which carries…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks.

Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First fully closed genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana associated with a food-borne outbreak.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012. Copyright © 2014 Hoffmann et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The odd one out: Bacillus ACT bacteriophage CP-51 exhibits unusual properties compared to related Spounavirinae W.Ph. and Bastille.

The Bacillus ACT group includes three important pathogenic species of Bacillus: anthracis, cereus and thuringiensis. We characterized three virulent bacteriophages, Bastille, W.Ph. and CP-51, that infect various strains of these three species. We have determined the complete genome sequences of CP-51, W.Ph. and Bastille, and their physical genome structures. The CP-51 genome sequence could only be obtained using a combination of conventional and second and third next generation sequencing technologies – illustrating the problems associated with sequencing highly modified DNA. We present evidence that the generalized transduction facilitated by CP-51 is independent of a specific genome structure, but likely due…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

High resolution assembly and characterization of genomes of Canadian isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis.

There is a need to characterize genomes of the foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and identify genetic information that could be ultimately deployed for differentiating strains of the organism, a need that is yet to be addressed mainly because of the high degree of clonality of the organism. In an effort to achieve the first characterization of the genomes of SE of Canadian origin, we carried out massively parallel sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of 11 SE isolates obtained from poultry production environments (n?=?9), a clam and a chicken, assembled finished genomes and investigated diversity of the SE…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Combining de novo and reference-guided assembly with scaffold_builder.

Genome sequencing has become routine, however genome assembly still remains a challenge despite the computational advances in the last decade. In particular, the abundance of repeat elements in genomes makes it difficult to assemble them into a single complete sequence. Identical repeats shorter than the average read length can generally be assembled without issue. However, longer repeats such as ribosomal RNA operons cannot be accurately assembled using existing tools. The application Scaffold_builder was designed to generate scaffolds – super contigs of sequences joined by N-bases – based on the similarity to a closely related reference sequence. This is independent of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium var. 5- strain isolated from chicken breast.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Here, we report a closed genome sequence, including sequences of 3 plasmids, of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium var. 5- CFSAN001921 (National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System [NARMS] strain ID N30688), which was isolated from chicken breast meat and shows resistance to 10 different antimicrobials. Whole-genome and plasmid sequence analyses of this isolate will help enhance our understanding of this pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar.

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