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Thursday, August 19, 2021

Informational Guide: What’s the value of sequencing full-length RNA transcripts?

The study of genomics has revolutionized our understanding of science, but the field of transcriptomics grew with the need to explore the functional impacts of genetic variation. While different tissues in an organism may share the same genomic DNA, they can differ greatly in what regions are transcribed into RNA and in their patterns of RNA processing. By reviewing the history of transcriptomics, we can see the advantages of RNA sequencing using a full-length transcript approach become clearer.

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

SMRT Sequencing solutions for large genomes and transcriptomes.

Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing holds promise for addressing new frontiers in large genome complexities, such as long, highly repetitive, low-complexity regions and duplication events, and differentiating between transcript isoforms that are difficult to resolve with short-read technologies. We present solutions available for both reference genome improvement (>100 MB) and transcriptome research to best leverage long reads that have exceeded 20 Kb in length. Benefits for these applications are further realized with consistent use of size-selection of input sample using the BluePippin™ device from Sage Science. Highlights from our genome assembly projects using the latest P5-C3 chemistry on model organisms…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Isoform sequencing: Unveiling the complex landscape in eukaryotic transcriptome on the PacBio RS II.

Advances in RNA sequencing have accelerated our understanding of the transcriptome, however isoform discovery remains challenging due to short read lengths. The Iso-Seq Application provides a new alternative to sequence full-length cDNA libraries using long reads from the PacBio RS II. Identification of long and often rare isoforms is demonstrated with rat heart and lung RNA prepared using the Clontech® SMARTer® cDNA preparation kit, followed by agarose-gel size selection in fractions of 1-2 kb, 2-3 kb and 3-6 kb. For each tissue, 1.8 and 1.2 million reads were obtained from 32 and 26 SMRT Cells, respectively. Filtering for reads with…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Complex alternative splicing patterns in hematopoietic cell subpopulations revealed by third-generation long reads.

Background: Alternative splicing expands the repertoire of gene functions and is a signature for different cell populations. Here we characterize the transcriptome of human bone marrow subpopulations including progenitor cells to understand their contribution to homeostasis and pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and tumor metastasis. To obtain full-length transcript structures, we utilized long reads in addition to RNA-seq for estimating isoform diversity and abundance. Method: Freshly harvested, viable human bone marrow tissues were extracted from discarded harvesting equipment and separated into total bone marrow (total), lineage-negative (lin-) progenitor cells and differentiated cells (lin+) by magnetic bead sorting with antibodies to…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

SMRT Sequencing of full-length androgen receptor isoforms in prostate cancer reveals previously hidden drug resistant variants

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer. For prostate cancer that has progressed to an advanced or metastatic stage, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard of care. ADT inhibits activity of the androgen receptor (AR), a master regulator transcription factor in normal and cancerous prostate cells. The major limitation of ADT is the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which is almost invariably due to transcriptional re-activation of the AR. One mechanism of AR transcriptional re-activation is expression of AR-V7, a truncated, constitutively active AR variant (AR-V) arising from alternative AR pre-mRNA splicing. Noteworthy, AR-V7 is being…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Simplified sequencing of full-length isoforms in cancer on the PacBio Sequel platform

Tremendous flexibility is maintained in the human proteome via alternative splicing, and cancer genomes often subvert this flexibility to promote survival. Identification and annotation of cancer-specific mRNA isoforms is critical to understanding how mutations in the genome affect the biology of cancer cells. While microarrays and other NGS-based methods have become useful for studying transcriptomes, these technologies yield short, fragmented transcripts that remain a challenge for accurate, complete reconstruction of splice variants. In cancer proteomics studies, the identification of biomarkers from mass spectroscopy data is often limited by incomplete gene isoform expression information to support protein to transcript mapping. The…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

SMRT-Cappable-seq reveals the complex operome of bacteria

SMRT-Cappable-seq combines the isolation of full-length prokaryotic primary transcripts with long read sequencing technology. It is the first experimental methodology to sequence entire prokaryotic transcripts. It identifies the transcription start site and termination site, thereby directly defines the operon structures genome-wide in prokaryotes. Applied to E.coli, SMRT-Cappable-seq identifies a total of ~2300 operons, among which ~900 are novel. Importantly, our result reveals a pervasive read-through of previous experimentally validated transcription termination sites. Termination read-through represents a powerful strategy to control gene expression. Taken together this data provides a first glance at the complexity of the ‘operome’ in bacteria and presents…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Scalability and reliability improvements to the Iso-Seq analysis pipeline enables higher throughput sequencing of full-length cancer transcripts

The characterization of gene expression profiles via transcriptome sequencing has proven to be an important tool for characterizing how genomic rearrangements in cancer affect the biological pathways involved in cancer progression and treatment response. More recently, better resolution of transcript isoforms has shown that this additional level of information may be useful in stratifying patients into cancer subtypes with different outcomes and responses to treatment.1 The Iso-Seq protocol developed at PacBio is uniquely able to deliver full-length, high-quality cDNA sequences, allowing the unambiguous determination of splice variants, identifying potential biomarkers and yielding new insights into gene fusion events. Recent improvements…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Allelic specificity of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) translocation in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) unveiled by long-read sequencing

Oncogenic fusion of IGH-DUX4 has recently been reported as a hallmark that defines a B-ALL subtype present in up to 7% of adolescents and young adults B-ALL. The translocation of DUX4 into IGH results in aberrant activation of DUX4 by hijacking the intronic IGH enhancer (Eµ). How IGH-DUX4 translocation interplays with IGH allelic exclusion was never been explored. We investigated this in Nalm6 B-ALL cell line, using long-read (PacBio Iso-Seq method and 10X Chromium WGS), short-read (Illumina total stranded RNA and WGS), epigenome (H3K27ac ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq) and 3-D genome (Hi-C, H3K27ac HiChIP, Capture-C).

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Haplotyping using full-length transcript sequencing reveals allele-specific expression

An important need in analyzing complex genomes is the ability to separate and phase haplotypes. While whole genome assembly can deliver this information, it cannot reveal whether there is allele-specific gene or isoform expression. The PacBio Iso-Seq method, which can produce high-quality transcript sequences of 10 kb and longer, has been used to annotate many important plant and animal genomes. We present an algorithm called IsoPhase that post-processes Iso-Seq data for transcript-based haplotyping. We applied IsoPhase to a maize Iso-Seq dataset consisting of two homozygous parents and two F1 cross hybrids. We validated the majority of the SNPs called with…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Library prep and bioinformatics improvements for full-length transcript sequencing on the PacBio Sequel System

The PacBio Iso-Seq method produces high-quality, full-length transcripts of up to 10 kb and longer and has been used to annotate many important plant and animal genomes. Here we describe an improved, simplified library workflow and analysis pipeline that reduces library preparation time, RNA input, and cost. The Iso-Seq V2 Express workflow is a one day protocol that requires only ~300 ng of total RNA input while also reducing the number of reverse transcription and amplification steps down to single reactions. Compared with the previous workflow, the Iso-Seq V2 Express workflow increases the percentage of full-length (FL) reads while achieving…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Full-length transcriptome sequencing of melanoma cell line complements long-read assessment of genomic rearrangements

Transcriptome sequencing has proven to be an important tool for understanding the biological changes in cancer genomes including the consequences of structural rearrangements. Short read sequencing has been the method of choice, as the high throughput at low cost allows for transcript quantitation and the detection of even rare transcripts. However, the reads are generally too short to reconstruct complete isoforms. Conversely, long-read approaches can provide unambiguous full-length isoforms, but lower throughput has complicated quantitation and high RNA input requirements has made working with cancer samples challenging. Recently, the COLO 829 cell line was sequenced to 50-fold coverage with PacBio…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

A complete solution for full-length transcript sequencing using the PacBio Sequel II System

Long read mRNA sequencing methods such as PacBio’s Iso-Seq method offers high-throughput transcriptome profiling in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. By avoiding the transcript assembly problem and instead sequencing full-length cDNA, Iso-Seq has emerged as the most reliable technology for annotating isoforms and, in turn, improving proteome predictions in a wide variety of organisms. Improvements in library preparation, sequencing throughput, and bioinformatics has enabled the Iso-Seq method to be complete solution for transcript characterization. The Iso-Seq Express kit is a one-day library prep requiring 60-300 ng of total RNA. The PacBio Sequel II system produces 4-5 million full-length reads, sufficient to…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

ASMS Conference: Approaching the ‘perfect’ database – single-molecule, full-length transcript sequencing to create sample-specific, full-length protein databases

Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies based on single-molecule detection now enable determination of full-length transcript sequences and, thus, all protein sequences in a sample. Utilizing data from this exciting technology, we have constructed customized, full-length protein databases that offer unprecedented advantages in proteomics database searching. Protein inference from bottom-up proteomics data can now be conducted using the set of correct protein sequences actually expressed in the sample, meaning that peptide identifications can be understood in the context of their corresponding full-length protein sequences. And most importantly, novel peptides or proteins originating from variations in the genome or transcriptome can…

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