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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination.

Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million annual infections globally. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes. Thus, studying C. amylolentus will shed light on the transition from tetrapolar to bipolar mating systems in the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Xanthomonas adaptation to common bean is associated with horizontal transfers of genes encoding TAL effectors.

Common bacterial blight is a devastating bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. fuscans and Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli. These phylogenetically distant strains are able to cause similar symptoms on common bean, suggesting that they have acquired common genetic determinants of adaptation to common bean. Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III effectors that are able to induce the expression of host genes to promote infection or resistance. Their capacity to bind to a specific host DNA sequence suggests that they are potential candidates for host adaption.To study the diversity of tal genes from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of the plant pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum type strain K60 and R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551.

Ralstonia solanacearum is a globally distributed plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt diseases of many crop hosts, threatening both sustenance farming and industrial agriculture. Here, we present closed genome sequences for the R. solanacearum type strain, K60, and the cool-tolerant potato brown rot strain R. solanacearum UW551, a highly regulated U.S. select agent pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Hayes et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First complete genome sequences of Xanthomonas citri pv. vignicola strains CFBP7111, CFBP7112, and CFBP7113 obtained using long-read technology

Xanthomonas citri pv. vignicola strains cause bacterial blight of the legume crop cowpea. We report whole-genome sequences of three X. citri pv. vignicola strains obtained using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing. Such genomic data provide new information on pathogenicity factors, such as transcription activator-like effectors. Copyright © 2017 Ruh et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum FJAT-91, a high-virulence pathogen of tomato wilt.

Ralstonia solanacearum FJAT-91, which displays higher virulence toward plants belonging to the family Solanaceae, was isolated from a wilted tomato plant vessel in Fujian province, southeast China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of R. solanacearum FJAT-91 using long-read single-molecule PacBio sequencing technology. The genome comprises a 3,873,214-bp circular chromosome and a 2,000,873-bp circular megaplasmid with an overall G+C content of 66.85%. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Harnessing whole genome sequencing in medical mycology.

Comparative genome sequencing studies of human fungal pathogens enable identification of genes and variants associated with virulence and drug resistance. This review describes current approaches, resources, and advances in applying whole genome sequencing to study clinically important fungal pathogens.Genomes for some important fungal pathogens were only recently assembled, revealing gene family expansions in many species and extreme gene loss in one obligate species. The scale and scope of species sequenced is rapidly expanding, leveraging technological advances to assemble and annotate genomes with higher precision. By using iteratively improved reference assemblies or those generated de novo for new species, recent studies…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mechanisms of adaptive divergence and speciation in Littorina saxatilis: Integrating knowledge from ecology and genetics with new data emerging from genomic studies

New opportunities to understand marine speciation and evolution of local adaptation come with genomic approaches and with the development of comprehensive model systems. The marine snail Littorina saxatilis is one example of a developing marine model for investigating genetic mechanisms of rapid divergence and evolution in natural systems. This species is strongly polymorphic and shows formation of local ecotypes throughout its distribution. Support is strong for primary (in situ) and parallel formation of reproductively semi-isolated ecotypes with contact zones between heterogeneous intertidal microhabitats. This makes this species an ideal organism for gaining new insights into the interplay of divergent selection,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Glaucophyta

The Glaucophyta is by far the least species-rich phylum of the Archaeplastida comprising only four described genera, Glaucocystis, Cyanophora, Gloeochaete, and Cyanoptyche, and 15 species. However, recent molecular and morphological analyses reveal that glaucophytes are not as species poor as hitherto assumed with many novel lineages existing in natural environments. Glaucophytes are freshwater phototrophs of moderate to low abundance and retain many ancestral plastid traits derived from the cyanobacterial donor of this organelle, including the remnant peptidoglycan wall in their envelope. These plastids were originally named “cyanelles,” which was later changed to “muroplasts” when their shared ancestry with other Archaeplastida…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Protein O-linked glycosylation in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most lethal phytopathogens in the world. Due to its broad host range, it can cause wilting disease in many plant species of economic interest. In this work, we identified the O-oligosaccharyltransferase (O-OTase) responsible for protein O-glycosylation in R. solanacearum. An analysis of the glycoproteome revealed that 20 proteins, including type IV pilins are substrates of this general glycosylation system. Although multiple glycan forms were identified, the majority of the glycopeptides were modified with a pentasaccharide composed of HexNAc-(Pen)-dHex3, similar to the O antigen subunit present in the lipopolysaccharide of multiple R. solanacearum strains. Disruption…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Long read and single molecule DNA sequencing simplifies genome assembly and TAL effector gene analysis of Xanthomonas translucens.

The species Xanthomonas translucens encompasses a complex of bacterial strains that cause diseases and yield loss on grass species including important cereal crops. Three pathovars, X. translucens pv. undulosa, X. translucens pv. translucens and X. translucens pv.cerealis, have been described as pathogens of wheat, barley, and oats. However, no complete genome sequence for a strain of this complex is currently available.A complete genome sequence of X. translucens pv. undulosa strain XT4699 was obtained by using PacBio long read, single molecule, real time (SMRT) DNA sequences and Illumina sequences. Draft genome sequences of nineteen additional X. translucens strains, which were collected…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Oral phage therapy of acute bacterial diarrhea with two coliphage preparations: A randomized trial in children from Bangladesh

Background Antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. Phage therapy (PT), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative. Method T4-like coliphages or a commercial Russian coliphage product or placebo was orally given over 4 days to Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute bacterial diarrhea. Safety of oral phage was assessed clinically and by functional tests; coliphage and Escherichia coli titers and enteropathogens were determined in stool and quantitative diarrhea parameters (stool output, stool frequency) were measured. Stool microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; the genomes of four fecal Streptococcus…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana) and NPB (not pathogenic to banana) strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions. Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the potato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum UY031.

Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt of potato. Ralstonia solanacearum strain UY031 belongs to the American phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, also classified as race 3 biovar 2. Here we report the completely sequenced genome of this strain, the first complete genome for phylotype IIB, sequevar 1, and the fourth for the R. solanacearum species complex. In addition to standard genome annotation, we have carried out a curated annotation of type III effector genes, an important pathogenicity-related class of genes for this organism. We identified 60 effector genes, and observed that this effector repertoire is distinct when compared…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Resurgence of less-studied smut fungi as models of phytopathogenesis in the -omics era.

The smut fungi form a large, diverse, and non-monophyletic group of plant pathogens that have long served as both important pests of human agriculture but also as fertile organisms of scientific investigation. As modern techniques of molecular genetic analysis became available, many previously-studied species that proved refractive to these techniques fell by the wayside to become neglected. Now, as the advent of rapid and affordable next-generation sequencing provides genomic and transcriptomic resources for even these “forgotten” fungi, several species are making a come-back and retaking prominent places in phytopathogenic research. In this review, we highlight several of these smut fungi,…

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