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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Drug resistance analysis by next generation sequencing in Leishmania.

The use of next generation sequencing has the power to expedite the identification of drug resistance determinants and biomarkers and was applied successfully to drug resistance studies in Leishmania. This allowed the identification of modulation in gene expression, gene dosage alterations, changes in chromosome copy numbers and single nucleotide polymorphisms that correlated with resistance in Leishmania strains derived from the laboratory and from the field. An impressive heterogeneity at the population level was also observed, individual clones within populations often differing in both genotypes and phenotypes, hence complicating the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. This review summarizes the most recent highlights…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The draft genome of Primula veris yields insights into the molecular basis of heterostyly.

The flowering plant Primula veris is a common spring blooming perennial that is widely cultivated throughout Europe. This species is an established model system in the study of the genetics, evolution, and ecology of heterostylous floral polymorphisms. Despite the long history of research focused on this and related species, the continued development of this system has been restricted due the absence of genomic and transcriptomic resources.We present here a de novo draft genome assembly of P. veris covering 301.8 Mb, or approximately 63% of the estimated 479.22 Mb genome, with an N50 contig size of 9.5 Kb, an N50 scaffold size of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A novel type pathway-specific regulator and dynamic genome environments of solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster in the fungus Ascochyta rabiei.

Secondary metabolite genes are often clustered together and situated in particular genomic regions, like the subtelomere, that can facilitate niche adaptation in fungi. Solanapyrones are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi occupying different ecological niches. Full-genome sequencing of the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei revealed a solanapyrone biosynthesis gene cluster embedded in an AT-rich region proximal to a telomere end and surrounded by Tc1/Mariner-type transposable elements. The highly AT-rich environment of the solanapyrone cluster is likely the product of repeat-induced point mutations. Several secondary metabolism-related genes were found in the flanking regions of the solanapyrone cluster. Although the solanapyrone cluster appears to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Unique transposon landscapes are pervasive across Drosophila melanogaster genomes.

To understand how transposon landscapes (TLs) vary across animal genomes, we describe a new method called the Transposon Insertion and Depletion AnaLyzer (TIDAL) and a database of >300 TLs in Drosophila melanogaster (TIDAL-Fly). Our analysis reveals pervasive TL diversity across cell lines and fly strains, even for identically named sub-strains from different laboratories such as the ISO1 strain used for the reference genome sequence. On average, >500 novel insertions exist in every lab strain, inbred strains of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), and fly isolates in the Drosophila Genome Nexus (DGN). A minority (70%) of TL diversity across fly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Botrytis, the good, the bad and the ugly

Botrytis spp. are efficient pathogens, causing devastating diseases and significant crop losses in a wide variety of plant species. Here we outline our review of these pathogens, as well as highlight the major advances of the past 10 years in studying Botrytis in interaction with its hosts. Progress in molecular genetics and the development of relevant phylogenetic markers in particular, has resulted in the characterisation of approximately 30 species. The host range of Botrytis spp. includes plant species that are members of 170 families of cultivated plants.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into the taxonomic status of the three subspecies of Bacillus subtilis.

Bacillus subtilis contains three subspecies, i.e., subspecies subtilis, spizizenii, and inaquosorum. As these subspecies are phenotypically indistinguishable, their differentiation has relied on phylogenetic analysis of multiple protein-coding gene sequences. B. subtilis subsp. inaquosorum is a recently proposed taxon that encompasses strain KCTC 13429(T) and related strains, which were previously classified as members of subspecies spizizenii. However, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values among the three subspecies raised a question as to their independence. Thus, we evaluated the taxonomic status of subspecies inaquosorum using genome-based comparative analysis. In contrast to the previous experimental values of DDH, the inter-genomic relatedness inferred by average nucleotide…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of the pathogenic fungus Scedosporium apiospermum.

The first genome of one species of the Scedosporium apiospermum complex, responsible for localized to severe disseminated infections according to the immune status of the host, will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of these fungi and also to the discovery of the mechanisms underlying their low susceptibility to current antifungals. Copyright © 2014 Vandeputte et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Twenty-one novel microsatellite loci for the endangered Florida salt marsh vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli)

We present 21 microsatellite loci developed for Florida salt marsh voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli). Microsatellites were identified from single molecule real time sequencing (Pacific Biosciences). We screened 30 loci and identified 21 loci as suitable for genotyping. We screened 17 individuals from Long Cabbage Key, and 3 individuals from an unnamed island. There was no significant departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or linkage equilibrium. Fifteen of the 21 loci were variable, with overall observed heterozygosity averaging 0.39, and a mean number of alleles of 3.14. Linkage disequilibrium estimate of Ne was 10.7 (95 % CI 6.1–20.1). These markers will be useful…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation polyploid phylogenetics: rapid resolution of hybrid polyploid complexes using PacBio single-molecule sequencing.

Difficulties in generating nuclear data for polyploids have impeded phylogenetic study of these groups. We describe a high-throughput protocol and an associated bioinformatics pipeline (Pipeline for Untangling Reticulate Complexes (Purc)) that is able to generate these data quickly and conveniently, and demonstrate its efficacy on accessions from the fern family Cystopteridaceae. We conclude with a demonstration of the downstream utility of these data by inferring a multi-labeled species tree for a subset of our accessions. We amplified four c. 1-kb-long nuclear loci and sequenced them in a parallel-tagged amplicon sequencing approach using the PacBio platform. Purc infers the final sequences…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The value of new genome references.

Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of six copper-resistant Xanthomonas strains causing bacterial spot of solaneous plants, belonging to X. gardneri, X. euvesicatoria, and X. vesicatoria, using long-read technology.

Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, and Xanthomonas gardneri cause bacterial spot disease. Copper has been applied since the 1920s as part of integrated management programs. The first copper-resistant strains were reported some decades later. Here, we fully sequenced six Xanthomonas strains pathogenic to tomato and/or pepper and having a copper-resistant phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Richard et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Simultaneous emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida auris on 3 continents confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological analyses.

Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes invasive infections, was first described in 2009 in Japan and has since been reported from several countries.To understand the global emergence and epidemiology of C. auris, we obtained isolates from 54 patients with C. auris infection from Pakistan, India, South Africa, and Venezuela during 2012-2015 and the type specimen from Japan. Patient information was available for 41 of the isolates. We conducted antifungal susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).Available clinical information revealed that 41% of patients had diabetes mellitus, 51% had undergone recent surgery, 73% had a central venous catheter, and 41% were…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Combination of short-read, long-read and optical mapping assemblies reveals large-scale tandem repeat arrays with population genetic implications.

Accurate and contiguous genome assembly is key to a comprehensive understanding of the processes shaping genomic diversity and evolution. Yet, it is frequently constrained by constitutive heterochromatin, usually characterized by highly repetitive DNA. As a key feature of genome architecture associated with centromeric and telomeric regions it influences meiotic recombination. In this study, we assess the impact of large tandem repeat arrays on the recombination rate landscape in an avian speciation model, the Eurasian crow. We assembled two high-quality genome references using single-molecule real-time sequencing (long-read assembly, LR) and single-molecule restriction maps (optical map assembly, OM). A three-way comparison including…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Phenotypic diversity and genotypic flexibility of Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term chronic infection of cystic fibrosis lungs.

Chronic bacterial infections of the lung are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Tracking bacterial evolution during chronic infections can provide insights into how host selection pressures-including immune responses and therapeutic interventions-shape bacterial genomes. We carried out genomic and phenotypic analyses of 215 serially collected Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates from 16 cystic fibrosis patients, spanning a period of 2-20 yr and a broad range of epidemic lineages. Systematic phenotypic tests identified longitudinal bacterial series that manifested progressive changes in liquid media growth, motility, biofilm formation, and acute insect virulence, but not in mucoidy. The results suggest…

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