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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unraveling microbial communities associated with methylmercury production in paddy soils.

Rice consumption is now recognized as an important pathway of human exposure to the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), particularly in countries where rice is a staple food. Although the discovery of a two-gene cluster hgcAB has linked Hg methylation to several phylogenetically diverse groups of anaerobic microorganisms converting inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg, the prevalence and diversity of Hg methylators in microbial communities of rice paddy soils remain unclear. We characterized the abundance and distribution of hgcAB genes using third-generation PacBio long-read sequencing and Illumina short-read metagenomic sequencing, in combination with quantitative PCR analyses in several mine-impacted paddy soils from southwest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phenotypic and genomic comparison of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01 and a widely used rifampicin-resistant Photorhabdus luminescens laboratory strain.

Photorhabdus luminescens is an enteric bacterium, which lives in mutualistic association with soil nematodes and is highly pathogenic for a broad spectrum of insects. A complete genome sequence for the type strain P. luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01, which was originally isolated in Trinidad and Tobago, has been described earlier. Subsequently, a rifampicin resistant P. luminescens strain has been generated with superior possibilities for experimental characterization. This strain, which is widely used in research, was described as a spontaneous rifampicin resistant mutant of TT01 and is known as TT01-RifR.Unexpectedly, upon phenotypic comparison between the rifampicin resistant strain and its presumed parent…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unexpected patterns of segregation distortion at a selfish supergene in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta.

The Sb supergene in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta determines the form of colony social organization, with colonies whose inhabitants bear the element containing multiple reproductive queens and colonies lacking it containing only a single queen. Several features of this supergene – including suppressed recombination, presence of deleterious mutations, association with a large centromere, and “green-beard” behavior – suggest that it may be a selfish genetic element that engages in transmission ratio distortion (TRD), defined as significant departures in progeny allele frequencies from Mendelian inheritance ratios. We tested this possibility by surveying segregation ratios in embryo progenies of 101 queens…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria in irrigation water: High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli.

Irrigation water is a major source of fresh produce contamination with undesired microorganisms including antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and contaminated fresh produce can transfer ARB to the consumer especially when consumed raw. Nevertheless, no legal guidelines exist so far regulating quality of irrigation water with respect to ARB. We therefore examined irrigation water from major vegetable growing areas for occurrence of antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., including extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. Occurrence of ARB strains was compared to total numbers of the respective species. We categorized water samples according to total numbers and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Out in the cold: Identification of genomic regions associated with cold tolerance in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea through genome-wide association mapping.

There is an increasing importance for using biocontrol agents in combating plant diseases sustainably and in the long term. As large scale genomic sequencing becomes economically viable, the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on biocontrol-associated phenotypes can be easily studied across entire genomes of fungal populations. Here, we improved a previously reported genome assembly of the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 using the PacBio sequencing platform, which resulted in a total genome size of 70.7 Mbp and 21,246 predicted genes. We further performed whole-genome re-sequencing of 52 additional C. rosea strains isolated globally using Illumina sequencing technology, in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The enterococcus cassette chromosome, a genomic variation enabler in enterococci.

Enterococcus faecium has a highly variable genome prone to recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Here, we have identified a novel genetic island with an insertion locus and mobilization genes similar to those of staphylococcus cassette chromosome elements SCCmec This novel element termed the enterococcus cassette chromosome (ECC) element was located in the 3′ region of rlmH and encoded large serine recombinases ccrAB similar to SCCmec Horizontal transfer of an ECC element termed ECC::cat containing a knock-in cat chloramphenicol resistance determinant occurred in the presence of a conjugative reppLG1 plasmid. We determined the ECC::cat insertion site in the 3′ region of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of the florfenicol resistance floR gene among clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in China.

Florfenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol that is used only for the treatment of animal diseases. A key resistance gene for florfenicol, floR, can spread among bacteria of the same and different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer. To analyze the potential transmission of resistance genes between animal and human pathogens, we investigated floR in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patient samples. floR in human pathogens may originate from animal pathogens and would reflect the risk to human health of using antimicrobial agents in animals.PCR was used to identify floR-positive strains. The floR genes were cloned, and the minimum inhibitory…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. JP2-270, a rhizosphere isolate of rice with antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani.

Burkholderia sp. JP2-270, a bacterium with a strong ability to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, was isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene revealed that JP2-270 belonged to Burkholderia cepacia complex. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. JP2-270, which consists of three circular chromosomes (Chr1 3,723,585 bp, Chr2 3,274,969 bp, Chr3 1,483,367 bp) and two plasmids (Plas1 15,126 bp, Plas2 428,263 bp). A total of 8193 protein coding genes were predicted in the genome, including 67 tRNA genes, 18 rRNA genes and 4 ncRNA genes. In addition, mutation…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the cyprodinil-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii LXL_C1.

Acinetobacter johnsonii LXL_C1, a cyprodinil degrader, was isolated and purified from cyprodinil-contaminated agricultural soil. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of LXL_C1. The genome comprises one 3,398,706 bp circular chromosome with 41.2% G + C content and one 44,866 bp plasmid. Annotation based on COG and KEGG database analyses revealed genes encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and hydrolase, which can effectively degrade cyprodinil. The complete genome sequence of LXL_C1 can facilitate genetic engineering of a recombinant cyprodinil degrader. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The impact of genome evolution on the allotetraploid Nicotiana rustica – an intriguing story of enhanced alkaloid production.

Nicotiana rustica (Aztec tobacco), like common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), is an allotetraploid formed through a recent hybridization event; however, it originated from completely different progenitor species. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of wild type N. rustica (5 Gb; 2n?=?4x?=?48) with its three putative diploid progenitors (2.3-3 Gb; 2n?=?2x =24), Nicotiana undulata, Nicotiana paniculata and Nicotiana knightiana.In total, 41% of N. rustica genome originated from the paternal donor (N. undulata), while 59% originated from the maternal donor (N. paniculata/N. knightiana). Chloroplast genome and gene analyses indicated that N. knightiana is more closely related to N. rustica than N. paniculata.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Massilia oculi sp. nov. CCUG 43427T (=DSM 26321T), the Type Strain of M. oculi, and Comparison with Genome Sequences of Other Massilia Strains.

Massilia oculi sp. nov. of type strain CCUG 43427T is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonspore-forming bacterium, which was recently isolated from the eye of a patient suffering from endophthalmitis and was described as novel species in Massilia genus. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of this strain by using Pacbio SMRT cell platform and compare this sequence with the genomes of 30 Massilia representative strains. Also, a comprehensive search was conducted for genes and proteins involved in antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. The genome of CCUG 43427T is 5,844,653 bp with 65.55% GC content. This genome contains four prophages and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus with a resistance plasmid.

The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characterization of a clinical Enterococcus casseliflavus strain with a resistance plasmid.En. casseliflavus EC369 was isolated from a patient in a hospital in southern China. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found by means of the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis were performed to analyze the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and the horizontal gene transfer of the resistance gene-related mobile genetic elements.En. casseliflavus EC369 showed resistance to erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, but was susceptible to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptothricin and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of Weissella koreensis reveal its metabolic and fermentative features during kimchi fermentation

The genomic and metabolic features of Weissella koreensis, one of the major lactic acid bacteria in kimchi, were investigated through genomic, metabolic, and transcriptomic analyses for the genomes of strains KCTC 3621T, KACC 15510, and WiKim0080. W. koreensis strains were intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and harbored potential hemolysin genes that were actively transcribed although no hemolysin activity was detected. KEGG and reconstructed fermentative metabolic pathways displayed that W. koreensis strains commonly employ the heterolactic pathway to produce d-lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, d-sorbitol, thiamine, and folate from various carbohydrates including d-glucose, d-mannose, d-lactose, l-malate, d-xylose, l-arabinose, d-ribose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and gluconate, and strains KCTC 3621T and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic analysis revealed rapid differentiation in the pathogenicity-related gene repertoires between Pyricularia oryzae and Pyricularia penniseti isolated from a Pennisetum grass.

A number of Pyricularia species are known to infect different grass species. In the case of Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), distinct populations are known to be adapted to a wide variety of grass hosts, including rice, wheat and many other grasses. The genome sizes of Pyricularia species are typical for filamentous ascomycete fungi [~?40 Mbp for P. oryzae, and ~?45 Mbp for P. grisea]. Genome plasticity, mediated in part by deletions promoted by recombination between repetitive elements [Genome Res 26:1091-1100, 2016, Nat Rev Microbiol 10:417-430,2012] and transposable elements [Annu Rev Phytopathol 55:483-503,2017] contributes to host adaptation. Therefore, comparisons of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Meiotic drive of female-inherited supernumerary chromosomes in a pathogenic fungus.

Meiosis is a key cellular process of sexual reproduction that includes pairing of homologous sequences. In many species however, meiosis can also involve the segregation of supernumerary chromosomes, which can lack a homolog. How these unpaired chromosomes undergo meiosis is largely unknown. In this study we investigated chromosome segregation during meiosis in the haploid fungus Zymoseptoria tritici that possesses a large complement of supernumerary chromosomes. We used isogenic whole chromosome deletion strains to compare meiotic transmission of chromosomes when paired and unpaired. Unpaired chromosomes inherited from the male parent as well as paired supernumerary chromosomes in general showed Mendelian inheritance.…

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