July 19, 2019  |  

Single-molecule sequencing reveals the chromosome-scale genomic architecture of the nematode model organism Pristionchus pacificus.

The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is an established model for integrative evolutionary biology and comparative studies with Caenorhabditis elegans. While an existing genome draft facilitated the identification of several genes controlling various developmental processes, its high degree of fragmentation complicated virtually all genomic analyses. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly from single-molecule, long-read sequencing data consisting of 135 P. pacificus contigs. When combined with a genetic linkage map, 99% of the assembly could be ordered and oriented into six chromosomes. This allowed us to robustly characterize chromosomal patterns of gene density, repeat content, nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium, and macrosynteny in P. pacificus. Despite widespread conservation of synteny between P. pacificus and C. elegans, we identified one major translocation from an autosome to the sex chromosome in the lineage leading to C. elegans. This highlights the potential of the chromosome-scale assembly for future genomic studies of P. pacificus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


July 19, 2019  |  

Long-read sequence assembly of the firefly Pyrocoelia pectoralis genome.

Fireflies are a family of insects within the beetle order Coleoptera, or winged beetles, and they are one of the most well-known and loved insect species because of their bioluminescence. However, the firefly is in danger of extinction because of the massive destruction of its living environment. In order to improve the understanding of fireflies and protect them effectively, we sequenced the whole genome of the terrestrial firefly Pyrocoelia pectoralis.Here, we developed a highly reliable genome resource for the terrestrial firefly Pyrocoelia pectoralis (E. Oliv., 1883; Coleoptera: Lampyridae) using single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing on the PacBio Sequel platform. In total, 57.8 Gb of long reads were generated and assembled into a 760.4-Mb genome, which is close to the estimated genome size and covered 98.7% complete and 0.7% partial insect Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs. The k-mer analysis showed that this genome is highly heterozygous. However, our long-read assembly demonstrates continuousness with a contig N50 length of 3.04 Mb and the longest contig length of 13.69 Mb. Furthermore, 135 589 SSRs and 341 Mb of repeat sequences were detected. A total of 23 092 genes were predicted; 88.44% of genes were annotated with one or more related functions.We assembled a high-quality firefly genome, which will not only provide insights into the conservation and biodiversity of fireflies, but also provide a wealth of information to study the mechanisms of their sexual communication, bio-luminescence, and evolution.© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.


July 19, 2019  |  

Extensive intraspecific gene order and gene structural variations between Mo17 and other maize genomes.

Maize is an important crop with a high level of genome diversity and heterosis. The genome sequence of a typical female line, B73, was previously released. Here, we report a de novo genome assembly of a corresponding male representative line, Mo17. More than 96.4% of the 2,183?Mb assembled genome can be accounted for by 362 scaffolds in ten pseudochromosomes with 38,620 annotated protein-coding genes. Comparative analysis revealed large gene-order and gene structural variations: approximately 10% of the annotated genes were mutually nonsyntenic, and more than 20% of the predicted genes had either large-effect mutations or large structural variations, which might cause considerable protein divergence between the two inbred lines. Our study provides a high-quality reference-genome sequence of an important maize germplasm, and the intraspecific gene order and gene structural variations identified should have implications for heterosis and genome evolution.


July 7, 2019  |  

Next-generation polyploid phylogenetics: rapid resolution of hybrid polyploid complexes using PacBio single-molecule sequencing.

Difficulties in generating nuclear data for polyploids have impeded phylogenetic study of these groups. We describe a high-throughput protocol and an associated bioinformatics pipeline (Pipeline for Untangling Reticulate Complexes (Purc)) that is able to generate these data quickly and conveniently, and demonstrate its efficacy on accessions from the fern family Cystopteridaceae. We conclude with a demonstration of the downstream utility of these data by inferring a multi-labeled species tree for a subset of our accessions. We amplified four c. 1-kb-long nuclear loci and sequenced them in a parallel-tagged amplicon sequencing approach using the PacBio platform. Purc infers the final sequences from the raw reads via an iterative approach that corrects PCR and sequencing errors and removes PCR-mediated recombinant sequences (chimeras). We generated data for all gene copies (homeologs, paralogs, and segregating alleles) present in each of three sets of 50 mostly polyploid accessions, for four loci, in three PacBio runs (one run per set). From the raw sequencing reads, Purc was able to accurately infer the underlying sequences. This approach makes it easy and economical to study the phylogenetics of polyploids, and, in conjunction with recent analytical advances, facilitates investigation of broad patterns of polyploid evolution.© 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.


July 7, 2019  |  

Identification of low allele frequency mosaic mutations in Alzheimer disease

Germline mutations ofAPP,PSEN1, andPSEN2 genes cause autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD). Somatic variants of the same genes may underlie pathogenesis in sporadic AD, which is the most prevalent form of the disease. Importantly, such somatic variants may be present at very low allelic frequency, confined to the brain, and are thus very difficult or impossible to detect in blood-derived DNA. Ever-refined methodologies to identify mutations present in a fraction of the DNA of the original tissue are rapidly transforming our understanding of DNA mutation and their role in complex pathologies such as tumors. These methods stand poised to test to what extend somatic variants may play a role in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.


July 7, 2019  |  

A draft genome sequence for the Ixodes scapularis cell line, ISE6

Background: The tick cell line ISE6, derived from Ixodes scapularis, is commonly used for amplification and detection of arboviruses in environmental or clinical samples. Methods: To assist with sequence-based assays, we sequenced the ISE6 genome with single-molecule, long-read technology. Results: The draft assembly appears near complete based on gene content analysis, though it appears to lack some instances of repeats in this highly repetitive genome. The assembly appears to have separated the haplotypes at many loci. DNA short read pairs, used for validation only, mapped to the cell line assembly at a higher rate than they mapped to the Ixodes scapularis reference genome sequence. Conclusions: The assembly could be useful for filtering host genome sequence from sequence data obtained from cells infected with pathogens.


July 7, 2019  |  

Immunoglobulin gene analysis as a tool for investigating human immune responses.

The human immunoglobulin repertoire is a hugely diverse set of sequences that are formed by processes of gene rearrangement, heavy and light chain gene assortment, class switching and somatic hypermutation. Early B cell development produces diverse IgM and IgD B cell receptors on the B cell surface, resulting in a repertoire that can bind many foreign antigens but which has had self-reactive B cells removed. Later antigen-dependent development processes adjust the antigen affinity of the receptor by somatic hypermutation. The effector mechanism of the antibody is also adjusted, by switching the class of the antibody from IgM to one of seven other classes depending on the required function. There are many instances in human biology where positive and negative selection forces can act to shape the immunoglobulin repertoire and therefore repertoire analysis can provide useful information on infection control, vaccination efficacy, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. It can also be used to identify antigen-specific sequences that may be of use in therapeutics. The juxtaposition of lymphocyte development and numerical evaluation of immune repertoires has resulted in the growth of a new sub-speciality in immunology where immunologists and computer scientists/physicists collaborate to assess immune repertoires and develop models of immune action.© 2018 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Closed genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum strain CFSAN064329 (62A).

Clostridium botulinum is a strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin, a potent and deadly proteinaceous exotoxin. Clostridium botulinum strain CFSAN064329 (62A) produces an A1 serotype/subtype botulinum neurotoxin and is frequently utilized in food challenge and detection studies. We report here the closed genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum strain CFSAN064329 (62A).


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 isolated from healthy Korean human feces

The genus of Olsenella has been isolated from vertebrate animal mouth, rumen, and feces. Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 was isolated from fecal samples obtained from a healthy Korean. The whole-genome sequence of Olsenella sp. KGMB 04489 was analyzed using the PacBio Sequel platform. The genome comprises a 2,108,034 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 65.50%, 1,838 total genes, 13 rRNA genes, and 52 tRNA genes. Also, we found that strain KGMB 04489 had some genes for hydrolysis enzymes, and antibiotic biosynthesis and resistance in its genome based on the result of genome analysis.


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