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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A high-quality genome sequence of Rosa chinensis to elucidate ornamental traits.

Rose is the world’s most important ornamental plant, with economic, cultural and symbolic value. Roses are cultivated worldwide and sold as garden roses, cut flowers and potted plants. Roses are outbred and can have various ploidy levels. Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. We produced a doubled haploid rose line (‘HapOB’) from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and generated a rose genome assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome and transcriptome maps of the entirely black native Korean chicken breed Yeonsan Ogye.

Yeonsan Ogye (YO), an indigenous Korean chicken breed (Gallus gallus domesticus), has entirely black external features and internal organs. In this study, the draft genome of YO was assembled using a hybrid de novo assembly method that takes advantage of high-depth Illumina short reads (376.6X) and low-depth Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long reads (9.7X).The contig and scaffold NG50s of the hybrid de novo assembly were 362.3 Kbp and 16.8 Mbp, respectively. The completeness (97.6%) of the draft genome (Ogye_1.1) was evaluated with single-copy orthologous genes using Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs and found to be comparable to the current chicken reference genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Human copy number variants are enriched in regions of low mappability.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to affect a large portion of the human genome and have been implicated in many diseases. Although whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can help identify CNVs, most analytical methods suffer from limited sensitivity and specificity, especially in regions of low mappability. To address this, we use PopSV, a CNV caller that relies on multiple samples to control for technical variation. We demonstrate that our calls are stable across different types of repeat-rich regions and validate the accuracy of our predictions using orthogonal approaches. Applying PopSV to 640 human genomes, we find that low-mappability regions are approximately…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The structure of a conserved telomeric region associated with variant antigen loci in the blood parasite Trypanosoma congolense

African trypanosomiasis is a vector-borne disease of humans and livestock caused by African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.). Survival in the vertebrate bloodstream depends on antigenic variation of Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) coating the parasite surface. In T. brucei, a model for antigenic variation, monoallelic VSG expression originates from dedicated VSG expression sites (VES). Trypanosoma brucei VES have a conserved structure consisting of a telomeric VSG locus downstream of unique, repeat sequences, and an independent promoter. Additional protein-coding sequences, known as “Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs)”, are also often present and are implicated in diverse, bloodstream-stage functions. Trypanosoma congolense is a related…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

B chromosomes of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) contribute to genome variations at the level of individuals and populations.

The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a bony fish from the Latidae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. The karyotype of the Asian seabass contains 24 pairs of A chromosomes and a variable number of AT- and GC-rich B chromosomes (Bchrs or Bs). Dot-like shaped and nucleolus-associated AT-rich Bs were microdissected and sequenced earlier. Here we analyzed DNA fragments from Bs to determine their repeat and gene contents using the Asian seabass genome as a reference. Fragments of 75 genes, including an 18S rRNA gene, were found in the Bs; repeats represented 2% of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization and probiotic potency of Bacillus sp. DU-106, a highly effective producer of L-lactic acid isolated from fermented yogurt.

Bacillus sp. DU-106, a newly isolated member of Bacillus cereus group, exhibits the predominant ability to produce L-lactic acid. The probiotic potency of test strain revealed its survivability at acidic pH, bile salts and viability in simulated gastric juice in vitro. The acute oral toxicity test indicated its no toxicity to laboratory mice in vivo. We further determined the complete genome of strain DU-106 to understand genetic basis as a potential probiotic. It has a circular chromosome and three plasmids for a total genome 5,758,208 bp in size with a G + C content of 35.10%. Genes associated with lactate…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Variation graph toolkit improves read mapping by representing genetic variation in the reference.

Reference genomes guide our interpretation of DNA sequence data. However, conventional linear references represent only one version of each locus, ignoring variation in the population. Poor representation of an individual’s genome sequence impacts read mapping and introduces bias. Variation graphs are bidirected DNA sequence graphs that compactly represent genetic variation across a population, including large-scale structural variation such as inversions and duplications. Previous graph genome software implementations have been limited by scalability or topological constraints. Here we present vg, a toolkit of computational methods for creating, manipulating, and using these structures as references at the scale of the human genome.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

How long are long tandem repeats? A challenge for current methods of whole-genome sequence assembly: The case of satellites in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Repetitive genome regions have been difficult to sequence, mainly because of the comparatively small size of the fragments used in assembly. Satellites or tandem repeats are very abundant in nematodes and offer an excellent playground to evaluate different assembly methods. Here, we compare the structure of satellites found in three different assemblies of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome: the original sequence obtained by Sanger sequencing, an assembly based on PacBio technology, and an assembly using Nanopore sequencing reads. In general, satellites were found in equivalent genomic regions, but the new long-read methods (PacBio and Nanopore) tended to result in longer assembled…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

How complete are “complete” genome assemblies?-An avian perspective.

The genomics revolution has led to the sequencing of a large variety of nonmodel organisms often referred to as “whole” or “complete” genome assemblies. But how complete are these, really? Here, we use birds as an example for nonmodel vertebrates and find that, although suitable in principle for genomic studies, the current standard of short-read assemblies misses a significant proportion of the expected genome size (7% to 42%; mean 20 ± 9%). In particular, regions with strongly deviating nucleotide composition (e.g., guanine-cytosine-[GC]-rich) and regions highly enriched in repetitive DNA (e.g., transposable elements and satellite DNA) are usually underrepresented in assemblies. However, long-read…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reassessment of the evolution of wheat chromosomes 4A, 5A, and 7B.

Comparison of genome sequences of wild emmer wheat and Aegilops tauschii suggests a novel scenario of the evolution of rearranged wheat chromosomes 4A, 5A, and 7B. Past research suggested that wheat chromosome 4A was subjected to a reciprocal translocation T(4AL;5AL)1 that occurred in the diploid progenitor of the wheat A subgenome and to three major rearrangements that occurred in polyploid wheat: pericentric inversion Inv(4AS;4AL)1, paracentric inversion Inv(4AL;4AL)1, and reciprocal translocation T(4AL;7BS)1. Gene collinearity along the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, subgenomes AABB) and diploid Aegilops tauschii (genomes DD) was employed to confirm these rearrangements and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

3D molecular cytology of Hop (Humulus lupulus) meiotic chromosomes reveals non-disomic pairing and segregation, aneuploidy, and genomic structural variation.

Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an important crop worldwide, known as the main flavoring ingredient in beer. The diversifying brewing industry demands variation in flavors, superior process properties, and sustainable agronomics, which are the focus of advanced molecular breeding efforts in hops. Hop breeders have been limited in their ability to create strains with desirable traits, however, because of the unusual and unpredictable inheritance patterns and associated non-Mendelian genetic marker segregation. Cytogenetic analysis of meiotic chromosome behavior has also revealed conspicuous and prevalent occurrences of multiple, atypical, non-disomic chromosome complexes, including those involving autosomes in late prophase. To explore the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Noise-Cancelling Repeat Finder: Uncovering tandem repeats in error-prone long-read sequencing data

Tandem DNA repeats can be sequenced with long-read technologies, but cannot be accurately deciphered due to the lack of computational tools taking high error rates of these technologies into account. Here we introduce Noise-Cancelling Repeat Finder (NCRF) to uncover putative tandem repeats of specified motifs in noisy long reads produced by Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore sequencers. Using simulations, we validated the use of NCRF to locate tandem repeats with motifs of various lengths and demonstrated its superior performance as compared to two alternative tools. Using real human whole-genome sequencing data, NCRF identified long arrays of the (AATGG)n repeat involved…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evolutionary conservation of Y Chromosome ampliconic gene families despite extensive structural variation.

Despite claims that the mammalian Y Chromosome is on a path to extinction, comparative sequence analysis of primate Y Chromosomes has shown the decay of the ancestral single-copy genes has all but ceased in this eutherian lineage. The suite of single-copy Y-linked genes is highly conserved among the majority of eutherian Y Chromosomes due to strong purifying selection to retain dosage-sensitive genes. In contrast, the ampliconic regions of the Y Chromosome, which contain testis-specific genes that encode the majority of the transcripts on eutherian Y Chromosomes, are rapidly evolving and are thought to undergo species-specific turnover. However, ampliconic genes are…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

MadID, a versatile approach to map protein-DNA interactions, highlights telomere-nuclear envelope contact sites in human cells.

Mapping the binding sites of DNA- or chromatin-interacting proteins is essential to understanding biological processes. DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) has emerged as a comprehensive method to map genome-wide occupancy of proteins of interest. A caveat of DamID is the specificity of Dam methyltransferase for GATC motifs that are not homogenously distributed in the genome. Here, we developed an optimized method named MadID, using proximity labeling of DNA by the methyltransferase M.EcoGII. M.EcoGII mediates N6-adenosine methylation in any DNA sequence context, resulting in deeper and unbiased coverage of the genome. We demonstrate, using m6A-specific immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing, that MadID…

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