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Sunday, September 22, 2019

De novo genome assembly of Oryza granulata reveals rapid genome expansion and adaptive evolution

The wild relatives of rice have adapted to different ecological environments and constitute a useful reservoir of agronomic traits for genetic improvement. Here we present the ~777?Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza granulata. Recent bursts of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons, especially RIRE2, led to a rapid twofold increase in genome size after O. granulata speciation. Universal centromeric tandem repeats are absent within its centromeres, while gypsy-type LTRs constitute the main centromere-specific repetitive elements. A total of 40,116 protein-coding genes were predicted in O. granulata, which is close to that of Oryza sativa. Both the copy number and function of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Biosynthesis of abscisic acid in fungi: identification of a sesquiterpene cyclase as the key enzyme in Botrytis cinerea.

While abscisic acid (ABA) is known as a hormone produced by plants through the carotenoid pathway, a small number of phytopathogenic fungi are also able to produce this sesquiterpene but they use a distinct pathway that starts with the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into 2Z,4E-a-ionylideneethane which is then subjected to several oxidation steps. To identify the sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) responsible for the biosynthesis of ABA in fungi, we conducted a genomic approach in Botrytis cinerea. The genome of the ABA-overproducing strain ATCC58025 was fully sequenced and five STC-coding genes were identified. Among them, Bcstc5 exhibits an expression profile concomitant…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A high-quality genome sequence of Rosa chinensis to elucidate ornamental traits.

Rose is the world’s most important ornamental plant, with economic, cultural and symbolic value. Roses are cultivated worldwide and sold as garden roses, cut flowers and potted plants. Roses are outbred and can have various ploidy levels. Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. We produced a doubled haploid rose line (‘HapOB’) from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and generated a rose genome assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A mosaic monoploid reference sequence for the highly complex genome of sugarcane.

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a major crop for sugar and bioenergy production. Its highly polyploid, aneuploid, heterozygous, and interspecific genome poses major challenges for producing a reference sequence. We exploited colinearity with sorghum to produce a BAC-based monoploid genome sequence of sugarcane. A minimum tiling path of 4660 sugarcane BAC that best covers the gene-rich part of the sorghum genome was selected based on whole-genome profiling, sequenced, and assembled in a 382-Mb single tiling path of a high-quality sequence. A total of 25,316 protein-coding gene models are predicted, 17% of which display no colinearity with their sorghum orthologs. We show…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hotspots of independent and multiple rounds of LTR-retrotransposon bursts in Brassica species

Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are a predominant group of plant transposable elements (TEs) that are an important component of plant genomes. A large number of LTR-RTs have been annotated in the genomes of the agronomically important oil and vegetable crops of the genus Brassica. Herein, full-length LTR-RTs in the genomes of Brassica and other closely related species were systematically analyzed. The full-length LTR-RT content varied greatly (from 0.43% to 23.4%) between different species, with Gypsy-like LTR-RTs constituting a primary group across these genomes. More importantly, many annotated LTR-RTs (from 10.03% to 33.25% of all detected LTR-RTs) were found to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Horizontal transfer of BovB and L1 retrotransposons in eukaryotes.

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences, colloquially known as jumping genes because of their ability to replicate to new genomic locations. TEs can jump between organisms or species when given a vector of transfer, such as a tick or virus, in a process known as horizontal transfer. Here, we propose that LINE-1 (L1) and Bovine-B (BovB), the two most abundant TE families in mammals, were initially introduced as foreign DNA via ancient horizontal transfer events.Using analyses of 759 plant, fungal and animal genomes, we identify multiple possible L1 horizontal transfer events in eukaryotic species, primarily involving Tx-like L1s in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Chara genome: Secondary complexity and implications for plant terrestrialization.

Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii; comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene families, with three cases of particular…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Using XCAVATOR and EXCAVATOR2 to Identify CNVs from WGS, WES, and TS Data.

Copy Number Variants (CNVs) are structural rearrangements contributing to phenotypic variation but also associated with many disease states. In recent years, the identification of CNVs from high-throughput sequencing experiments has become a common practice for both research and clinical purposes. Several computational methods have been developed so far. In this unit, we describe and give instructions on how to run two read count-based tools, XCAVATOR and EXCAVATOR2, which are tailored for the detection of both germline and somatic CNVs from different sequencing experiments (whole-genome, whole-exome, and targeted) in various disease contexts and population genetic studies. © 2018 by John Wiley…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A chromosome scale assembly of the model desiccation tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum

Oropetium thomaeum is an emerging model for desiccation tolerance and genome size evolution in grasses. A high-quality draft genome of Oropetium was recently sequenced, but the lack of a chromosome scale assembly has hindered comparative analyses and downstream functional genomics. Here, we reassembled Oropetium, and anchored the genome into ten chromosomes using Hi-C based chromatin interactions. A combination of high-resolution RNAseq data and homology-based gene prediction identified thousands of new, conserved gene models that were absent from the V1 assembly. This includes thousands of new genes with high expression across a desiccation timecourse. The sorghum and Oropetium genomes have a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of the draft genome of the red seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda provides insights into genome size evolution in Rhodophyta.

Red algae (Rhodophyta) underwent two phases of large-scale genome reduction during their early evolution. The red seaweeds did not attain genome sizes or gene inventories typical of other multicellular eukaryotes. We generated a high-quality 92.1 Mb draft genome assembly from the red seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda, including methylation and small (s)RNA data. We analyzed these and other Archaeplastida genomes to address three questions: 1) What is the role of repeats and transposable elements (TEs) in explaining Rhodophyta genome size variation, 2) what is the history of genome duplication and gene family expansion/reduction in these taxa, and 3) is there evidence for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Biology and genome of a newly discovered sibling species of Caenorhabditis elegans.

A ‘sibling’ species of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has long been sought for use in comparative analyses that would enable deep evolutionary interpretations of biological phenomena. Here, we describe the first sibling species of C. elegans, C. inopinata n. sp., isolated from fig syconia in Okinawa, Japan. We investigate the morphology, developmental processes and behaviour of C. inopinata, which differ significantly from those of C. elegans. The 123-Mb C. inopinata genome was sequenced and assembled into six nuclear chromosomes, allowing delineation of Caenorhabditis genome evolution and revealing unique characteristics, such as highly expanded transposable elements that might have contributed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing, de novo assembly and phenotypic profiling for the new budding yeast species Saccharomyces jurei.

Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex consist of yeast species, which are not only important in the fermentation industry but are also model systems for genomic and ecological analysis. Here, we present the complete genome assemblies of Saccharomyces jurei, a newly discovered Saccharomyces sensu stricto species from high altitude oaks. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that S. jurei is more closely related to S. mikatae, than S. cerevisiae, and S. paradoxus The karyotype of S. jurei presents two reciprocal chromosomal translocations between chromosome VI/VII and I/XIII when compared to the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, while the rearrangement I/XIII is unique to S.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A miR172 target-deficient AP2-like gene correlates with the double flower phenotype in roses.

One of the well-known floral abnormalities in flowering plants is the double-flower phenotype, which corresponds to flowers that develop extra petals, sometimes even containing entire flowers within flowers. Because of their highly priced ornamental value, spontaneous double-flower variants have been found and selected for in a wide range of ornamental species. Previously, double flower formation in roses was associated with a restriction of AGAMOUS expression domain toward the centre of the meristem, leading to extra petals. Here, we characterized the genomic region containing the mutation associated with the switch from simple to double flowers in the rose. An APETALA2-like gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A gene-rich fraction analysis of the Passiflora edulis genome reveals highly conserved microsyntenic regions with two related Malpighiales species.

Passiflora edulis is the most widely cultivated species of passionflowers, cropped mainly for industrialized juice production and fresh fruit consumption. Despite its commercial importance, little is known about the genome structure of P. edulis. To fill in this gap in our knowledge, a genomic library was built, and now completely sequenced over 100 large-inserts. Sequencing data were assembled from long sequence reads, and structural sequence annotation resulted in the prediction of about 1,900 genes, providing data for subsequent functional analysis. The richness of repetitive elements was also evaluated. Microsyntenic regions of P. edulis common to Populus trichocarpa and Manihot esculenta,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Opposite polarity monospore genome de novo sequencing and comparative analysis reveal the possible heterothallic life cycle of Morchella importuna.

Morchella is a popular edible fungus worldwide due to its rich nutrition and unique flavor. Many research efforts were made on the domestication and cultivation of Morchella all over the world. In recent years, the cultivation of Morchella was successfully commercialized in China. However, the biology is not well understood, which restricts the further development of the morel fungus cultivation industry. In this paper, we performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the genomes of two monospores with a different mating type (M04M24 and M04M26) isolated from the commercially cultivated strain M04. Gene annotation and comparative genome analysis were performed…

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