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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of three Clostridioides difficile strains isolated from a single patient provide insight into multiple infection of C. difficile.

Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) have emerged over the past decade causing symptoms that range from mild, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) to life-threatening toxic megacolon. In this study, we describe a multiple and isochronal (mixed) CDI caused by the isolates DSM 27638, DSM 27639 and DSM 27640 that already initially showed different morphotypes on solid media.The three isolates belonging to the ribotypes (RT) 012 (DSM 27639) and 027 (DSM 27638 and DSM 27640) were phenotypically characterized and high quality closed genome sequences were generated. The genomes were compared with seven reference strains including three strains of the RT 027, two of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Egg case silk gene sequences from Argiope spiders: Evidence for multiple loci and a loss of function between paralogs.

Spiders swath their eggs with silk to protect developing embryos and hatchlings. Egg case silks, like other fibrous spider silks, are primarily composed of proteins called spidroins (spidroin = spider-fibroin). Silks, and thus spidroins, are important throughout the lives of spiders, yet the evolution of spidroin genes has been relatively understudied. Spidroin genes are notoriously difficult to sequence because they are typically very long (= 10 kb of coding sequence) and highly repetitive. Here, we investigate the evolution of spider silk genes through long-read sequencing of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones. We demonstrate that the silver garden spiderArgiope argentatahas multiple…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reproducible integration of multiple sequencing datasets to form high-confidence SNP, indel, and reference calls for five human genome reference materials

Benchmark small variant calls from the Genome in a Bottle Consortium (GIAB) for the CEPH/HapMap genome NA12878 (HG001) have been used extensively for developing, optimizing, and demonstrating performance of sequencing and bioinformatics methods. Here, we develop a reproducible, cloud-based pipeline to integrate multiple sequencing datasets and form benchmark calls, enabling application to arbitrary human genomes. We use these reproducible methods to form high-confidence calls with respect to GRCh37 and GRCh38 for HG001 and 4 additional broadly-consented genomes from the Personal Genome Project that are available as NIST Reference Materials. These new genomes’ broad, open consent with few restrictions on availability…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of the wheat fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis reveals chromosomal variations and genome plasticity.

Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes the major wheat disease, tan spot. We set out to provide essential genomics-based resources in order to better understand the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important pathogen.Here, we present eight new Ptr isolate genomes, assembled and annotated; representing races 1, 2 and 5, and a new race. We report a high quality Ptr reference genome, sequenced by PacBio technology with Illumina paired-end data support and optical mapping. An estimated 98% of the genome coverage was mapped to 10 chromosomal groups, using a two-enzyme hybrid approach. The final reference genome was 40.9 Mb…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

CagY-dependent regulation of type IV secretion in Helicobacter pylori is associated with alterations in integrin binding.

Strains of Helicobacter pylori that cause ulcer or gastric cancer typically express a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). CagY is an ortholog of VirB10 that, unlike other VirB10 orthologs, has a large middle repeat region (MRR) with extensive repetitive sequence motifs, which undergo CD4+ T cell-dependent recombination during infection of mice. Recombination in the CagY MRR reduces T4SS function, diminishes the host inflammatory response, and enables the bacteria to colonize at a higher density. Since CagY is known to bind human a5ß1 integrin, we tested the hypothesis that recombination in the CagY MRR…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multiple large inversions and breakpoint rewiring of gene expression in the evolution of the fire ant social supergene.

Supergenes consist of co-adapted loci that segregate together and are associated with adaptive traits. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, two ‘social’ supergene variants regulate differences in colony queen number and other traits. Suppressed recombination in this system is maintained, in part, by a greater than 9 Mb inversion, but the supergene is larger. Has the supergene in S. invicta undergone multiple large inversions? The initial gene content of the inverted allele of a supergene would be the same as that of the wild-type allele. So, how did the inversion increase in frequency? To address these questions, we cloned one…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Acquisition of resistance to carbapenem and macrolide-mediated quorum sensing inhibition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa via ICE Tn4371 6385

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. The first-line agents to treat P. aeruginosa infections are carbapenems. However, the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains greatly compromised the effec- tiveness of carbapenem treatment, which makes the surveillance on their spreading and transmission important. Here we characterized the full-length genomes of two carbapenem- resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that are capable of producing New Delhi metallo-ß- lactamase-1 (NDM-1). We show that blaNDM-1 is carried by a novel integrative and conjugative element (ICE) ICETn43716385, which also carries the macrolide resistance gene msr(E) and the florfenicol resistance gene floR. By exogenously…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evidence of non-tandemly repeated rDNAs and their intragenomic heterogeneity in Rhizophagus irregularis

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) species are some of the most widespread symbionts of land plants. Our much improved reference genome assembly of a model AMF, Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM-181602 (total contigs?=?210), facilitated a discovery of repetitive elements with unusual characteristics. R. irregularis has only ten or 11 copies of complete 45S rDNAs, whereas the general eukaryotic genome has tens to thousands of rDNA copies. R. irregularis rDNAs are highly heterogeneous and lack a tandem repeat structure. These findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that rDNA heterogeneity depends on the lack of tandem repeat structures. RNA-Seq analysis confirmed that all rDNA variants…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Validation of Genomic Structural Variants Through Long Sequencing Technologies.

Although numerous algorithms have been developed to identify large chromosomal rearrangements (i.e., genomic structural variants, SVs), there remains a dearth of approaches to evaluate their results. This is significant, as the accurate identification of SVs is still an outstanding problem whereby no single algorithm has been shown to be able to achieve high sensitivity and specificity across different classes of SVs. The method introduced in this chapter, VaPoR, is specifically designed to evaluate the accuracy of SV predictions using third-generation long sequences. This method uses a recurrence approach and collects direct evidence from raw reads thus avoiding computationally costly whole…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome alterations associated with improved transformation efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the microorganisms of choice for the development of protein delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. Although there are numerous tools to facilitate genome engineering of lactobacilli; transformation efficiency still limits the ability to engineer their genomes. While genetically manipulating Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (LR 6475), we noticed that after an initial transformation, several LR 6475 strains significantly improved their ability to take up plasmid DNA via electroporation. Our goal was to understand the molecular basis for how these strains acquired the ability to increase transformation efficiency.Strains generated after transformation of plasmids pJP067 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Computational tools to unmask transposable elements.

A substantial proportion of the genome of many species is derived from transposable elements (TEs). Moreover, through various self-copying mechanisms, TEs continue to proliferate in the genomes of most species. TEs have contributed numerous regulatory, transcript and protein innovations and have also been linked to disease. However, notwithstanding their demonstrated impact, many genomic studies still exclude them because their repetitive nature results in various analytical complexities. Fortunately, a growing array of methods and software tools are being developed to cater for them. This Review presents a summary of computational resources for TEs and highlights some of the challenges and remaining…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A complete Leishmania donovani reference genome identifies novel genetic variations associated with virulence.

Leishmania donovani is responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, a neglected and lethal parasitic disease with limited treatment options and no vaccine. The study of L. donovani has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome and this can impact experimental outcomes including the identification of virulence genes, drug targets and vaccine development. We therefore generated a complete genome assembly by deep sequencing using a combination of second generation (Illumina) and third generation (PacBio) sequencing technologies. Compared to the current L. donovani assembly, the genome assembly reported within resulted in the closure over 2,000 gaps, the extension of several chromosomes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The central exons of the human MUC2 and MUC6 mucins are highly repetitive and variable in sequence between individuals

The DNA sequence of the two human mucin genes MUC2 and MUC6 have not been completely resolved due to the repetitive nature of their central exon coding for Proline, Threonine and Serine rich sequences. The exact nucleotide sequence of these exons has remained unknown for a long time due to limitations in traditional sequencing techniques. These are still very poorly covered in new whole genome sequencing projects with the corresponding protein sequences partly missing. We used a BAC clone containing both these genes and third generation sequencing technology, SMRT sequencing, to obtain the full-length contiguous MUC2 and MUC6 tandem repeat…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Regulation of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Yarrowia lipolytica.

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica undergoes a morphological transition from yeast-to-hyphal growth in response to environmental conditions. A forward genetic screen was used to identify mutants that reliably remain in the yeast phase, which were then assessed by whole-genome sequencing. All the smooth mutants identified, so named because of their colony morphology, exhibit independent loss of DNA at a repetitive locus made up of interspersed ribosomal DNA and short 10- to 40-mer telomere-like repeats. The loss of repetitive DNA is associated with downregulation of genes with stress response elements (5′-CCCCT-3′) and upregulation of genes with cell cycle box (5′-ACGCG-3′) motifs in…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators.

Salamanders serve as important tetrapod models for developmental, regeneration and evolutionary studies. An extensive molecular toolkit makes the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) a key representative salamander for molecular investigations. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the 32-gigabase-pair axolotl genome using an approach that combined long-read sequencing, optical mapping and development of a new genome assembler (MARVEL). We observed a size expansion of introns and intergenic regions, largely attributable to multiplication of long terminal repeat retroelements. We provide evidence that intron size in developmental genes is under constraint and that species-restricted genes may contribute to limb regeneration. The axolotl…

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