A novel cadmium-resistant bacterium, Raoultella sp. strain X13, recently isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soil, and this strain can synthesize CdS quantum dots using cadmium nitrate [Cd(NO4)2] and l-cysteine. Biomineralization of CdS by strain X13 can efficiently remove cadmium from aqueous solution. To illuminate the molecular mechanisms for the biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticle, the complete genome of Raoultella sp. strain X13 was sequenced. The whole genome sequence comprises a circular chromosome and a circular plasmid. Cysteine desulfhydrase smCSE has been previously found to be associated with the synthesis of CdS quantum dots. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the genome of Raoultella sp. strain X13 encodes five putative cysteine desulfhydrases and all of them are located in the chromosome. The genome information may help us to determine the molecular mechanisms of the synthesis of CdS quantum dots and potentially enable us to engineer this microorganism for applications in biotechnology.