Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop in the family Brassicaceae, which provides diverse nutrients for human health and is closely related to the Brassica crop species. Recently, we sequenced and assembled the radish genome into nine chromosome pseudomolecules. In addition, we developed diverse genomic resources, including genetic maps, molecular markers, transcriptome, genome-wide methylation and variome data. In this study, we describe the radish genome database (RadishGD), including details of data sets that we generated and the web interface that allows access to these data. RadishGD comprises six major units that enable researchers and general users to search, browse and analyze the radish genomic data in an integrated manner. The Search unit provides gene structures and sequences for gene models through keyword or BLAST searches. The Genome browser displays graphic representations of gene models, mRNAs, repetitive sequences, genome-wide methylation and variomes among various genotypes. The Functional annotation unit offers gene ontology, plant ontology, pathway and gene family information for gene models. The Genetic map unit provides information about markers and their genetic locations using two types of genetic maps. The Expression unit presents transcriptional characteristics and methylation levels for each gene in 18 tissues. All sequence data incorporated into RadishGD can be downloaded from the Data resources unit. RadishGD will be continually updated to serve as a community resource for radish genomics and breeding research.
Diversity of phytobeneficial traits revealed by whole-genome analysis of worldwide-isolated phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp.
Plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp. competitively colonize the rhizosphere and display plant-growth promotion and/or disease-suppression activities. Some strains within the P. fluorescens species complex produce phenazine derivatives, such as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. These antimicrobial compounds are broadly inhibitory to numerous soil-dwelling plant pathogens and play a role in the ecological competence of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. We assembled a collection encompassing 63 strains representative of the worldwide diversity of plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we report the sequencing of 58 complete genomes using PacBio RS II sequencing technology. Distributed among four subgroups within the P. fluorescens species complex, the diversity of our collection is reflected by the large pangenome which accounts for 25 413 protein-coding genes. We identified genes and clusters encoding for numerous phytobeneficial traits, including antibiotics, siderophores and cyclic lipopeptides biosynthesis, some of which were previously unknown in these microorganisms. Finally, we gained insight into the evolutionary history of the phenazine biosynthetic operon. Given its diverse genomic context, it is likely that this operon was relocated several times during Pseudomonas evolution. Our findings acknowledge the tremendous diversity of plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp., paving the way for comparative analyses to identify new genetic determinants involved in biocontrol, plant-growth promotion and rhizosphere competence. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Assessment of the microbial diversity of Chinese Tianshan tibicos by single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.
Chinese Tianshan tibico grains were collected from the rural area of Tianshan in Xinjiang province, China. Typical tibico grains are known to consist of polysaccharide matrix that embeds a variety of bacteria and yeasts. These grains are widely used in some rural regions to produce a beneficial sugary beverage that is slightly acidic and contains low level of alcohol. This work aimed to characterize the microbiota composition of Chinese Tianshan tibicos using the single molecule, real-time sequencing technology, which is advantageous in generating long reads. Our results revealed that the microbiota mainly comprised of the bacterial species of Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Zymomonas mobilis, together with a Guehomyces pullulans-dominating fungal community. The data generated in this work helps identify beneficial microbes in Chinese Tianshan tibico grains.
Systematic Identification of Pathogenic Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 That Causes Common Scab and Genomic Analysis of Its Pathogenicity Island.
Potato scab, a serious soilborne disease caused by Streptomyces spp., occurs in potato-growing areas worldwide and results in severe economic losses. In this paper, the pathogenicity of Streptomyces strain AMCC400023, isolated from potato scabs in Hebei Province, China, was verified systematically by the radish seedling test, the potato tuber slice assay, the potted back experiment, and the detection of phytotoxin thaxtomin A. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics were determined, and the 16S ribosomal RNA analyses of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 were carried out. To obtain the accurate taxonomic status of the pathogen strain, the whole genome was sequenced, and the phylogenetic tree among 31 Streptomyces genomes was formed. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) were analyzed, and at the same time, the toxicity-related genes between Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 and Streptomyces scabiei were compared, all based on the whole-genome level. All of the data supported that, instead of a member of S. scabiei, test strain Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 was a distinct phytopathogen of potato common scab, which had a relatively close relationship with S. scabiei while separating clearly from S. scabiei at least in the species level of taxonomic status. The complete pathogenicity island (PAI) composition of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 was identified, which contained a toxin region and a colonization region. It was conjectured that the PAI of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 might be directly or indirectly acquired from S. scabiei 87-22 by horizontal gene transfer, or at the very least, there was a very close homologous relationship between the two pathogens as indicated by a series of analyses, such as phylogenetic relationships among 31 Streptomyces species, ANI and isDDH analyses, PAI structure mapping, thaxtomin A synthetic gene cluster tree construction, and most important, the collinearity analysis at the genome level.
Wild almond species accumulate the bitter and toxic cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. Almond domestication was enabled by the selection of genotypes harboring sweet kernels. We report the completion of the almond reference genome. Map-based cloning using an F1 population segregating for kernel taste led to the identification of a 46-kilobase gene cluster encoding five basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, bHLH1 to bHLH5. Functional characterization demonstrated that bHLH2 controls transcription of the P450 monooxygenase-encoding genes PdCYP79D16 and PdCYP71AN24, which are involved in the amygdalin biosynthetic pathway. A nonsynonymous point mutation (Leu to Phe) in the dimerization domain of bHLH2 prevents transcription of the two cytochrome P450 genes, resulting in the sweet kernel trait. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Seeds are involved in the vertical transmission of microorganisms in plants and act as reservoirs for the plant microbiome. They could serve as carriers of pathogens, making the study of microbial interactions on seeds important in the emergence of plant diseases. We studied the influence of biological disturbances caused by seed transmission of two phytopathogenic agents, Alternaria brassicicola Abra43 (Abra43) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc8004), on the structure and function of radish seed microbial assemblages, as well as the nutritional overlap between Xcc8004 and the seed microbiome, to find seed microbial residents capable of outcompeting this pathogen. According to taxonomic and functional inference performed on metagenomics reads, no shift in structure and function of the seed microbiome was observed following Abra43 and Xcc8004 transmission. This lack of impact derives from a limited overlap in nutritional resources between Xcc8004 and the major bacterial populations of radish seeds. However, two native seed-associated bacterial strains belonging to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila displayed a high overlap with Xcc8004 regarding the use of resources; they might therefore limit its transmission. The strategy we used may serve as a foundation for the selection of seed indigenous bacterial strains that could limit seed transmission of pathogens.
Comparative genomics and pathogenicity potential of members of the Pseudomonas syringae species complex on Prunus spp.
Diseases on Prunus spp. have been associated with a large number of phylogenetically different pathovars and species within the P. syringae species complex. Despite their economic significance, there is a severe lack of genomic information of these pathogens. The high phylogenetic diversity observed within strains causing disease on Prunus spp. in nature, raised the question whether other strains or species within the P. syringae species complex were potentially pathogenic on Prunus spp.To gain insight into the genomic potential of adaptation and virulence in Prunus spp., a total of twelve de novo whole genome sequences of P. syringae pathovars and species found in association with diseases on cherry (sweet, sour and ornamental-cherry) and peach were sequenced. Strains sequenced in this study covered three phylogroups and four clades. These strains were screened in vitro for pathogenicity on Prunus spp. together with additional genome sequenced strains thus covering nine out of thirteen of the currently defined P. syringae phylogroups. Pathogenicity tests revealed that most of the strains caused symptoms in vitro and no obvious link was found between presence of known virulence factors and the observed pathogenicity pattern based on comparative genomics. Non-pathogenic strains were displaying a two to three times higher generation time when grown in rich medium.In this study, the first set of complete genomes of cherry associated P. syringae strains as well as the draft genome of the quarantine peach pathogen P. syringae pv. persicae were generated. The obtained genomic data were matched with phenotypic data in order to determine factors related to pathogenicity to Prunus spp. Results of this study suggest that the inability to cause disease on Prunus spp. in vitro is not the result of host specialization but rather linked to metabolic impairments of individual strains.