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Sunday, July 7, 2019

‘Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga’, an uncultivated electroautotroph from a biocathode enrichment.

Biocathode communities are of interest for a variety of applications, including electrosynthesis, bioremediation, and biosensors, yet much remains to be understood about the biological processes that occur to enable these communities to grow. One major difficulty in understanding these communities is that the critical autotrophic organisms are difficult to cultivate. An uncultivated, electroautotrophic bacterium previously identified as an uncultivated member of the family Chromatiaceae appears to be a key organism in an autotrophic biocathode microbial community. Metagenomic, metaproteomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of this community indicates that there is likely a single organism that utilizes electrons from the cathode to fix…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic, physiologic, and proteomic insights into metabolic versatility in Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from deep-sea water.

Roseobacter clade bacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments and now thought to be significant contributors to carbon and sulfur cycling. However, only a few strains of roseobacters have been isolated from the deep-sea water column and have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we present the complete genomes of phylogentically closed related Thiobacimonas profunda JLT2016 and Pelagibaca abyssi JLT2014 isolated from deep-sea water of the Southeastern Pacific. The genome sequences showed that the two deep-sea roseobacters carry genes for versatile metabolisms with functional capabilities such as ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-mediated carbon fixation and inorganic sulfur oxidation. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic studies of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and nodules.

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseoli, R. trifolii, R. grahamii and Sinorhizobium americanum, were able to colonize Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) seeds. To gain further insight into the traits that support this ability, we analyzed the genomic sequences and proteomes of R. phaseoli (CCGM1) and S. americanum (CCGM7) strains from seeds and compared them with those of the closely related strains CIAT652 and CFNEI73, respectively, isolated only from nodules.In a fine structural study of the S. americanum genomes,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the cochineal insect Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

Dactylopius species, known as cochineal insects, are the source of the carminic acid dye used worldwide. The presence of two Wolbachia strains in Dactylopius coccus from Mexico was revealed by PCR amplification of wsp and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A metagenome analysis recovered the genome sequences of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA (supergroup A) and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB (supergroup B). Genome read coverage, as well as 16S rRNA clone sequencing, revealed that wDacB was more abundant than wDacA. The strains shared similar predicted metabolic capabilities that are common to Wolbachia, including riboflavin, ubiquinone, and heme biosynthesis, but lacked other…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Borneol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain TCU-HL1 catalyzes the oxidation of (+)-borneol and its isomers to camphor.

Most plant-produced monoterpenes can be degraded by soil microorganisms. Borneol is a plant terpene that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Neither microbial borneol dehydrogenase (BDH) nor a microbial borneol degradation pathway has been reported previously. One borneol-degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain TCU-HL1, was isolated by our group. Its genome was sequenced and annotated. The genome of TCU-HL1 consists of a 6.2-Mbp circular chromosome and one circular plasmid, pTHL1 (12.6 kbp). Our results suggest that borneol is first converted into camphor by BDH in TCU-HL1 and is further decomposed through a camphor degradation pathway. The recombinant BDH was produced…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Neuraminidase A-exposed galactose promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation during colonization.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx. Herein we show that carbon availability is distinct between the nasopharynx and bloodstream of adult humans: glucose is absent from the nasopharynx, whereas galactose is abundant. We demonstrate that pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA), which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from host glycoproteins, exposed galactose on the surface of septal epithelial cells, thereby increasing its availability during colonization. We observed that S. pneumoniae mutants deficient in NanA and ß-galactosidase A (BgaA) failed to form biofilms in vivo despite normal biofilm-forming abilities in vitro Subsequently, we observed that glucose, sucrose, and fructose…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Expansion of lysine-rich repeats in Plasmodium proteins generates novel localisation sequences that target the periphery of the host erythrocyte.

Repetitive low-complexity sequences, mostly assumed to have no function, are common in proteins that are exported by the malaria parasite into its host erythrocyte. We identify a group of exported proteins containing short lysine-rich tandemly repeated sequences that are sufficient to localise to the erythrocyte periphery where key virulence-related modifications to the plasma membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton are known to occur. Efficiency of targeting is dependent on repeat number, indicating that novel targeting modules could evolve by expansion of short lysine-rich sequences. Indeed, expression GARP fragments from different species shows that two novel targeting sequences have arisen via the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM).

The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ~3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3′ untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification and expression analysis of wheat TaGF14 genes.

The 14-3-3 gene family members play key roles in various cellular processes. However, little is known about the numbers and roles of 14-3-3 genes in wheat. The aims of this study were to identify TaGF14 numbers in wheat by searching its whole genome through blast, to study the phylogenetic relationships with other plant species and to discuss the functions of TaGF14s. The results showed that common wheat harbored 20 TaGF14 genes, located on wheat chromosome groups 2, 3, 4, and 7. Out of them, eighteen TaGF14s are non-e proteins, and two wheat TaGF14 genes, TaGF14i and TaGF14f, are e proteins.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Oryza rufipogon Griff.

Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of present-day cultivated rice, O. sativa, is one of the most studied wild species of rice. It is a perennial plant commonly found in a marsh or aquatic habitats of eastern and southern Asia. It has partial outcrossing behavior and is photoperiod sensitive. The flowering time usually ranges between September and November. It has been and is being exploited as a source of valuable genes and QTLs for yield components as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. A number of populations like chromosome segment substitution lines, backcross inbred lines, near-isogenic lines, and recombinant inbred…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” sp. nov. strain Cad16T, a photolithoautotrophic purple sulfur bacterium isolated from the alpine meromictic Lake Cadagno.

Thiodictyon syntrophicum sp. nov. strain Cad16T is a photoautotrophic purple sulfur bacterium belonging to the family of Chromatiaceae in the class of Gammaproteobacteria. The type strain Cad16T was isolated from the chemocline of the alpine meromictic Lake Cadagno in Switzerland. Strain Cad16T represents a key species within this sulfur-driven bacterial ecosystem with respect to carbon fixation. The 7.74-Mbp genome of strain Cad16T has been sequenced and annotated. It encodes 6237 predicted protein sequences and 59 RNA sequences. Phylogenetic comparison based on 16S rRNA revealed that Thiodictyon elegans strain DSM 232T the most closely related species. Genes involved in sulfur oxidation,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Lifestyle of Lactobacillus hordei isolated from water kefir based on genomic, proteomic and physiological characterization.

Water kefir is a traditional fermented beverage made from sucrose, water, kefir granules, dried or fresh fruits. In our water kefir granules, Lactobacillus (L.) hordei is one of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species of this presumed symbiotic consortium. It faces abundant sucrose versus limitation of amino- and fatty acids in an acidic environment. Sequencing of the genome of L. hordei TMW 1.1822 revealed one chromosome plus three plasmids. The size of the chromosome was 2.42?Mbp with a GC content of 35% GC and 2461 predicted coding sequences. Furthermore, we identified 1474 proteins upon growth on water kefir medium.…

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