April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence provides insights into the quorum sensing-related spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica 128 isolated from spoiled shrimp.

Shewanella baltica 128 is a specific spoilage organism (SSO) isolated from the refrigerated shrimp that results in shrimp spoilage. This study reported the complete genome sequencing of this strain, with the primary annotations associated with amino acid transport and metabolism (8.66%), indicating that S. baltica 128 has good potential for degrading proteins. In vitro experiments revealed Shewanella baltica 128 could adapt to the stress conditions by regulating its growth and biofilm formation. Genes that related to the spoilage-related metabolic pathways, including trimethylamine metabolism (torT), sulfur metabolism (cysM), putrescine metabolism (speC), biofilm formation (rpoS) and serine protease production (degS), were identified. Genes (LuxS, pfs, LuxR and qseC) that related to the specific QS system were also identified. Complete genome sequence of S. baltica 128 provide insights into the QS-related spoilage potential, which might provide novel information for the development of new approaches for spoilage detection and prevention based on QS target.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis JT3-1, a microbial germicide isolated from yak feces

Bacillus velezensis JT3-1 is a probiotic strain isolated from feces of the domestic yak (Bos grunniens) in the Gansu province of China. It has strong antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staphylococcus hominis, Clostridium perfringens, and Mycoplasma bovis. These properties have made the JT3-1 strain the focus of commercial interest. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of JT3-1, with a genome size of 3,929,799 bp, 3761 encoded genes and an average GC content of 46.50%. Whole genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis JT3-1 will lay a good foundation for elucidation of the mechanisms of its antimicrobial activity, and for its future application.

April 21, 2020  |  

A Novel Bacteriophage Exclusion (BREX) System Encoded by the pglX Gene in Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

The bacteriophage exclusion (BREX) system is a novel prokaryotic defense system against bacteriophages. To our knowledge, no study has systematically characterized the function of the BREX system in lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a probiotic bacterium originating from koumiss. By using single-molecule real-time sequencing, we previously identified N6-methyladenine (m6A) signatures in the genome of L. casei Zhang and a putative methyltransferase (MTase), namely, pglX This work further analyzed the genomic locus near the pglX gene and identified it as a component of the BREX system. To decipher the biological role of pglX, an L. casei Zhang pglX mutant (?pglX) was constructed. Interestingly, m6A methylation of the 5′-ACRCAG-3′ motif was eliminated in the ?pglX mutant. The wild-type and mutant strains exhibited no significant difference in morphology or growth performance in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium. A significantly higher plasmid acquisition capacity was observed for the ?pglX mutant than for the wild type if the transformed plasmids contained pglX recognition sites (i.e., 5′-ACRCAG-3′). In contrast, no significant difference was observed in plasmid transformation efficiency between the two strains when plasmids lacking pglX recognition sites were tested. Moreover, the ?pglX mutant had a lower capacity to retain the plasmids than the wild type, suggesting a decrease in genetic stability. Since the Rebase database predicted that the L. casei PglX protein was bifunctional, as both an MTase and a restriction endonuclease, the PglX protein was heterologously expressed and purified but failed to show restriction endonuclease activity. Taken together, the results show that the L. casei Zhang pglX gene is a functional adenine MTase that belongs to the BREX system.IMPORTANCELactobacillus casei Zhang is a probiotic that confers beneficial effects on the host, and it is thus increasingly used in the dairy industry. The possession of an effective bacterial immune system that can defend against invasion of phages and exogenous DNA is a desirable feature for industrial bacterial strains. The bacteriophage exclusion (BREX) system is a recently described phage resistance system in prokaryotes. This work confirmed the function of the BREX system in L. casei and that the methyltransferase (pglX) is an indispensable part of the system. Overall, our study characterizes a BREX system component gene in lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.

April 21, 2020  |  

Single-Scaffold Genome Sequence of Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604), Obtained by Combining Hybrid Sequencing and Optical Mapping.

Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) is known for its health-promoting activity. We present a single-scaffold genome obtained by using a hybrid approach combining long- and short-read sequencing techniques integrated by an optical map. This approach could be set as an industry standard for probiotic strain characterization.Copyright © 2019 Fracchetti et al.

April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic variation and strain-specific functional adaptation in the human gut microbiome during early life.

The human gut microbiome matures towards the adult composition during the first years of life and is implicated in early immune development. Here, we investigate the effects of microbial genomic diversity on gut microbiome development using integrated early childhood data sets collected in the DIABIMMUNE study in Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. We show that gut microbial diversity is associated with household location and linear growth of children. Single nucleotide polymorphism- and metagenomic assembly-based strain tracking revealed large and highly dynamic microbial pangenomes, especially in the genus Bacteroides, in which we identified evidence of variability deriving from Bacteroides-targeting bacteriophages. Our analyses revealed functional consequences of strain diversity; only 10% of Finnish infants harboured Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, a subspecies specialized in human milk metabolism, whereas Russian infants commonly maintained a probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum strain in infancy. Groups of bacteria contributing to diverse, characterized metabolic pathways converged to highly subject-specific configurations over the first two years of life. This longitudinal study extends the current view of early gut microbial community assembly based on strain-level genomic variation.

April 21, 2020  |  

Large Plasmid Complement Resolved: Complete Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus plantarum MF1298, a Candidate Probiotic Strain Associated with Unfavorable Effect.

Considerable attention has been given to the species Lactobacillus plantarum regarding its probiotic potential. L. plantarum strains have shown health benefits in several studies, and even nonstrain-specific claims are allowed in certain markets. L. plantarum strain MF1298 was considered a candidate probiotic, demonstrating in vitro probiotic properties and the ability to survive passage through the human intestinal tract. However, the strain showed an unfavorable effect on symptoms in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome in a clinical trial. The properties and the genome of this strain are thus of general interest. Obtaining the complete genome of strain MF1298 proved difficult due to its large plasmid complement. Here, we exploit a combination of sequencing approaches to obtain the complete chromosome and plasmid assemblies of MF1298. The Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION long-read sequencer was particularly useful in resolving the unusually large number of plasmids in the strain, 14 in total. The complete genome sequence of 3,576,440 basepairs contains 3272 protein-encoding genes, of which 315 are located on plasmids. Few unique regions were found in comparison with other L. plantarum genomes. Notably, however, one of the plasmids contains genes related to vitamin B12 (cobalamin) turnover and genes encoding bacterial reverse transcriptases, features not previously reported for L. plantarum. The extensive plasmid information will be important for future studies with this strain.

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