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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

SMRT sequencing reveals differential patterns of methylation in two O111:H- STEC isolates from a hemolytic uremic syndrome outbreak in Australia.

In 1995 a severe haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) outbreak in Adelaide occurred. A recent genomic analysis of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O111:H- strains 95JB1 and 95NR1 from this outbreak found that the more virulent isolate, 95NR1, harboured two additional copies of the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) genes encoded within prophage regions. The structure of the Stx2-converting prophages could not be fully resolved using short-read sequence data alone and it was not clear if there were other genomic differences between 95JB1 and 95NR1. In this study we have used Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to characterise the genome…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Sequencing and Genomic Diversity Analysis of IncHI5 Plasmids.

IncHI plasmids could be divided into five different subgroups IncHI1-5. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of seven blaIMP- or blaVIM-carrying IncHI5 plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. quasipneumoniae, and K. variicola were determined and compared in detail with all the other four available sequenced IncHI5 plasmids. These plasmids carried conserved IncHI5 backbones composed of repHI5B and a repFIB-like gene (replication), parABC (partition), and tra1 (conjugal transfer). Integration of a number of accessory modules, through horizontal gene transfer, at various sites of IncHI5 backbones resulted in various deletions of surrounding backbone regions and thus considerable diversification of IncHI5 backbones. Among…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Strain-level metagenomic assignment and compositional estimation for long reads with MetaMaps.

Metagenomic sequence classification should be fast, accurate and information-rich. Emerging long-read sequencing technologies promise to improve the balance between these factors but most existing methods were designed for short reads. MetaMaps is a new method, specifically developed for long reads, capable of mapping a long-read metagenome to a comprehensive RefSeq database with >12,000 genomes in 94% accuracy for species-level read assignment and r2?>?0.97 for the estimation of sample composition on both simulated and real data when the sample genomes or close relatives are present in the classification database. To address novel species and genera, which are comparatively harder to predict,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Urinary tract colonization is enhanced by a plasmid that regulates uropathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii chromosomal genes.

Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii poses a growing threat to global health. Research on Acinetobacter pathogenesis has primarily focused on pneumonia and bloodstream infections, even though one in five A. baumannii strains are isolated from urinary sites. In this study, we highlight the role of A. baumannii as a uropathogen. We develop the first A. baumannii catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) murine model using UPAB1, a recent MDR urinary isolate. UPAB1 carries the plasmid pAB5, a member of the family of large conjugative plasmids that represses the type VI secretion system (T6SS) in multiple Acinetobacter strains. pAB5 confers niche specificity,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A Phage-Like Plasmid Carrying blaKPC-2 Gene in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Background: Lateral gene transfer plays a central role in the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite their clinical significance, there is little information regarding the mobile genetic elements and mechanism of acquisition and propagation of lateral genes in P. aeruginosa, and they remain largely unknown. Objectives: The present study characterized the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strain BH9. Methods:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 sequencing was performed using the long-read PacBio SMRT platform and the Ion Proton System. De novo assembly was carried out using the SMRT pipeline and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of acetate-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae L5-2 isolated from infant feces.

Acetate is an important metabolite in infants as it can affect metabolism as well as immune and inflammatory responses. However, there have been no studies on acetate production by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from infant feces. In this study, we isolated a K. pneumoniae strain, L5-2, from infant feces, and we found it produces acetate. The genome of L5-2 consisted of a 5,237,123-bp single chromosome and a 139,211-bp single plasmid. The G?+?C content was 57.27%. By whole-genome analysis of K. pneumoniae L5-2, we identified seven genes related to acetate production (poxA, pta, eutD, ackA, eutP, eutQ, and adhE). We confirmed acetate…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of an NDM-5 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST156 isolate from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains has posed a severe threat to public health in recent years. The mobile elements carrying the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactqtamase (NDM) gene have been regarded as the major mechanism leading to the rapid increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinics and animals.We describe an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli strain, ECCRA-119 (sequence type 156 [ST156]), isolated from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China. ECCRA-119 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate that exhibited resistance to 27 antimicrobial compounds, including imipenem and meropenem, as detected by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The complete genome sequence of the ECCRA-119 isolate was…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome plasticity favours double chromosomal Tn4401b-blaKPC-2 transposon insertion in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 clone.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 235 is a clone that possesses an extraordinary ability to acquire mobile genetic elements and has been associated with the spread of resistance genes, including genes that encode for carbapenemases. Here, we aim to characterize the genetic platforms involved in resistance dissemination in blaKPC-2-positive P. aeruginosa ST235 in Colombia.In a prospective surveillance study of infections in adult patients attended in five ICUs in five distant cities in Colombia, 58 isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered, of which, 27 (46.6%) were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular analysis showed that 6 (22.2%) and 4 (14.8%) isolates harboured the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole-genome sequencing of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to track strain progression in a single patient with recurrent urinary tract infection.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important uropathogen that increasingly harbors broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance determinants. Evidence suggests that some same-strain recurrences in women with frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs) may emanate from a persistent intravesicular reservoir. Our objective was to analyze K. pneumoniae isolates collected over weeks from multiple body sites of a single patient with recurrent UTI in order to track ordered strain progression across body sites, as has been employed across patients in outbreak settings. Whole-genome sequencing of 26 K. pneumoniae isolates was performed utilizing the Illumina platform. PacBio sequencing was used to create a refined reference genome of the…

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