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Sunday, September 22, 2019

T-independent IFN? and B cells cooperate to prevent mortality associated with disseminated Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

CD4 T cells and antibody are required for optimal acquired immunity to C. muridarum genital tract infection, and T cell-mediated IFN? production is necessary to clear infection in the absence of humoral immunity. However, the role of T cell-independent immune responses during primary infection remains unclear. We investigated this question by inoculating wild-type and immune-deficient mice with C. muridarum CM001, a clonal isolate capable of enhanced extragenital replication. Genital inoculation of wild-type mice resulted in transient dissemination to the lungs and spleen that then was rapidly cleared from these organs. However, CM001 genital infection proved lethal for STAT1-/- and IFNG-/-…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A molecular window into the biology and epidemiology of Pneumocystis spp.

Pneumocystis, a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro, making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evidence of non-tandemly repeated rDNAs and their intragenomic heterogeneity in Rhizophagus irregularis

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) species are some of the most widespread symbionts of land plants. Our much improved reference genome assembly of a model AMF, Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM-181602 (total contigs?=?210), facilitated a discovery of repetitive elements with unusual characteristics. R. irregularis has only ten or 11 copies of complete 45S rDNAs, whereas the general eukaryotic genome has tens to thousands of rDNA copies. R. irregularis rDNAs are highly heterogeneous and lack a tandem repeat structure. These findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that rDNA heterogeneity depends on the lack of tandem repeat structures. RNA-Seq analysis confirmed that all rDNA variants…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, in NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The rapid increase in carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria has renewed focus on the importance of polymyxin antibiotics (colistin or polymyxin E). However, the recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7), especially mcr-1, in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a serious threat to global health. Here, we characterized a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, located on a transferrable 95,983-bp IncFII-type plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The deduced amino-acid sequence of MCR-8 showed 31.08%, 30.26%, 39.96%, 37.85%, 33.51%, 30.43%, and 37.46% identity to MCR-1, MCR-2, MCR-3, MCR-4, MCR-5, MCR-6, and MCR-7, respectively. Functional cloning indicated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, KAB03 belonging to ST451 from Korea.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains have emerged rapidly worldwide. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of XDR A. baumannii strains show regional differences; therefore, it is necessary to analyze both genomic and proteomic characteristics of emerging XDR A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in Korea to elucidate their multidrug resistance. Here, we isolated new sequence type of XDR A. baumannii clinical strain (KAB03) from Korean hospitals and performed comprehensive genome analyses. The strain belongs to new sequence type, ST451. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis with other types of A. baumannii strains revealed that KAB03 has unique SNP pattern in the regions of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of an XDR and carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in Taiwan.

Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae causes high mortality owing to the limited therapeutic options available. Here, we investigated an emergent carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae strain with hypervirulence found among KPC-2-producing strains in Taiwan.KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were collected consecutively from clinical specimens at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Capsular types and the presence of rmpA/rmpA2 were analysed, and PFGE and MLST performed using these strains. The strain positive for rmpA/rmpA2 was tested in an in vivo mouse lethality study to verify its virulence and subjected to WGS to delineate its genomic features.A total of 62 KPC-2-producing K.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comprehensive evaluation of the host responses to infection with differentially virulent classical swine fever virus strains in pigs.

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection causes most variable clinical syndromes from chronic or latent infection to acute death, and it is generally acknowledged that the course of disease is affected by both virus and host factors. To compare host immune responses to differentially virulent CSFV strains in pigs, fifteen 8-week-old specific-pathogen-free pigs were randomly divided into four groups and inoculated with the CSFV Shimen strain (a highly virulent strain), the HLJZZ2014 strain (a moderately virulent strains), C-strain (an avirulent strain), and DMEM (mock control), respectively. Infection with the Shimen or HLJZZ2014 strain resulted in fever, clinical signs and histopathological…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of Haemophilus parasuis serovar 2 CL120103, a moderately virulent strain in China

Haemophilus parasuis is an important bacterium affecting pigs, causing Glässer’s disease. To further characterize this species, we determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis CL120103, which was isolated from diseased pigs. The strain H. parasuis CL120103 was identified as serovar 2. The size of the largest scaffold is 2,326,318 bp and contains 145 large contigs, with the N50 contig being 20,573 bp in length. The complete genome of H. parasuis CL120103 is 2,305,354 bp in length with 39.97% GC content and contains 2227 protein-coding genes, 19 ribosomal rRNA operons and 60 tRNA genes. Sequence similarity of the genome of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo reveals lineage-specific gene differences that may influence ecological niche association.

Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo has been linked to recent foodborne illness outbreaks resulting from contamination of products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds and spices. Studies have shown that Montevideo also is frequently associated with healthy cattle and can be isolated from ground beef, yet human salmonellosis outbreaks of Montevideo associated with ground beef contamination are rare. This disparity fuelled our interest in characterizing the genomic differences between Montevideo strains isolated from healthy cattle and beef products, and those isolated from human patients and outbreak sources. To that end, we sequenced 13 Montevideo strains to completion, producing high-quality genome assemblies of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Distinct genomic features characterize two clades of Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Proposal of Corynebacterium diphtheriae subsp. diphtheriae subsp. nov. and Corynebacterium diphtheriae subsp. lausannense subsp. nov.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiological agent of diphtheria, a disease caused by the presence of the diphtheria toxin. However, an increasing number of records report non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae infections. Here, a C. diphtheriae strain was recovered from a patient with a past history of bronchiectasis who developed a severe tracheo-bronchitis with multiple whitish lesions of the distal trachea and the mainstem bronchi. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), performed in parallel with PCR targeting the toxin gene and the Elek test, provided clinically relevant results in a short turnaround time, showing that the isolate was non-toxigenic. A comparative genomic analysis of the new…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Prevalence and genomic structure of bacteriophage phi3 in human derived livestock-associated MRSA from 2000 to 2015.

Whereas the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) in animal husbandry and its transmission to humans are well documented, less is known about factors driving the epidemic spread of this zoonotic lineage within the human population. One factor could be the bacteriophage phi3, which is rarely detected in S. aureus isolates from animals but commonly found among isolates from humans, including those of the human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) CC398 clade. The proportion of phi3-carrying MRSA spa-CC011 isolates, which constitute presumptively LA-MRSA within the multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complex 398, was systematically assessed for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hepacivirus A infection in horses defines distinct envelope hypervariable regions and elucidates potential roles of viral strain and adaptive immune status in determining envelope diversity and infection outcome.

Hepacivirus A (also known as nonprimate hepacivirus and equine hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic virus that can cause both transient and persistent infections in horses. The evolution of intrahost viral populations (quasispecies) has not been studied in detail for hepacivirus A, and its roles in immune evasion and persistence are unknown. To address these knowledge gaps, we first evaluated the envelope gene (E1 and E2) diversity of two different hepacivirus A strains (WSU and CU) in longitudinal blood samples from experimentally infected adult horses, juvenile horses (foals), and foals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Persistent infection with the WSU strain was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Involvement of PorK, a component of the type IX secretion system, in Prevotella melaninogenica pathogenicity.

Prevotella melaninogenica is a gram-negative anaerobic commensal bacterium that resides in the human oral cavity and is isolated as a pathogen of suppurative diseases both inside and outside the mouth. However, little is known about the pathogenic factors of P. melaninogenica. The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tanerella forsythia secrete virulence factors such as protease and bacterial cell surface proteins via a type IX secretion system (T9SS) that are involved in pathogenicity. P. melaninogenica also possesses all known orthologs of T9SS. In this study, a P. melaninogenica GAI 07411 mutant deficient in the orthologue of the T9SS-encoding gene, porK, was…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Antagonistic pleiotropy in the bifunctional surface protein FadL (OmpP1) during adaptation of Haemophilus influenzae to chronic lung infection associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Tracking bacterial evolution during chronic infection provides insights into how host selection pressures shape bacterial genomes. The human-restricted opportunistic pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infects the lower airways of patients suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to disease progression. To identify bacterial genetic variation associated with bacterial adaptation to the COPD lung, we sequenced the genomes of 92 isolates collected from the sputum of 13 COPD patients over 1 to 9?years. Individuals were colonized by distinct clonal types (CTs) over time, but the same CT was often reisolated at a later time or found in different patients. Although…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of the KPC plasmid pCT-KPC334: New insights on the evolutionary pathway of epidemic plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

A novel, non-conjugative plasmid pKP1034 isolated from a fosfomycin-resistant, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia strain KP1034 was recently reported to carry fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12 and rmtB genes, and was hypothesized to evolve from several recombination events of two closely related plasmids, pHN7A8 and pKPC-LK30 [1]. In this study, a plasmid pCT-KPC334 carrying fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, and rmtB genes was identified, providing evidence on the evolutionary pathway of plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

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