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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Clinical PathoScope: rapid alignment and filtration for accurate pathogen identification in clinical samples using unassembled sequencing data.

The use of sequencing technologies to investigate the microbiome of a sample can positively impact patient healthcare by providing therapeutic targets for personalized disease treatment. However, these samples contain genomic sequences from various sources that complicate the identification of pathogens.Here we present Clinical PathoScope, a pipeline to rapidly and accurately remove host contamination, isolate microbial reads, and identify potential disease-causing pathogens. We have accomplished three essential tasks in the development of Clinical PathoScope. First, we developed an optimized framework for pathogen identification using a computational subtraction methodology in concordance with read trimming and ambiguous read reassignment. Second, we have demonstrated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evolution of selective-sequencing approaches for virus discovery and virome analysis.

Recent advances in sequencing technologies have transformed the field of virus discovery and virome analysis. Once mostly confined to the traditional Sanger sequencing based individual virus discovery, is now entirely replaced by high throughput sequencing (HTS) based virus metagenomics that can be used to characterize the nature and composition of entire viromes. To better harness the potential of HTS for the study of viromes, sample preparation methodologies use different approaches to exclude amplification of non-viral components that can overshadow low-titer viruses. These virus-sequence enrichment approaches mostly focus on the sample preparation methods, like enzymatic digestion of non-viral nucleic acids and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of Burkholderia fungorum in the urine of an individual with spinal cord injury and augmentation cystoplasty using 16S sequencing: copathogen or innocent bystander?

People with neuropathic bladder (NB) secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) are at risk for multiple genitourinary complications, the most frequent of which is urinary tract infection (UTI). Despite the high frequency with which UTI occurs, our understanding of the role of urinary microbes in health and disease is limited. In this paper, we present the first prospective case study integrating symptom reporting, urinalysis, urine cultivation, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing of the urine microbiome.A 55-year-old male with NB secondary to SCI contributed 12 urine samples over an 8-month period during asymptomatic, symptomatic, and postantibiotic periods. All bacteria…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from farmed duck, Republic of Korea.

Staphylococcus cohnii has become increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen of clinically significant nosocomial and farm animal infections. This study was designed to determine the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from a farmed duck in Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using the PacBio RS II system. The complete genome was annotated and the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The annotated 2,625,703 bp genome contained various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactam, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols and trimethoprim. The virulence-associated three synergistic hemolysins have been identified in the strain.To the best of our…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of a divergent HPIV4 from respiratory secretions using second and third generation metagenomic sequencing.

Molecular detection of viruses has been aided by high-throughput sequencing, permitting the genomic characterization of emerging strains. In this study, we comprehensively screened 500 respiratory secretions from children with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infections for viral pathogens. The viruses detected are described, including a divergent human parainfluenza virus type 4 from GS FLX pyrosequencing of 92 specimens. Complete full-genome characterization of the virus followed, using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing. Subsequent “primer walking” combined with Sanger sequencing validated the RS platform’s utility in viral sequencing from complex clinical samples. Comparative genomics reveals the divergent strain clusters with the only…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effects of metal and metalloid pollutants on the microbiota composition of feces obtained from twelve commercial pig farms across China.

Understanding the metal and metalloid contamination and microbiota composition of pig feces is an important step required to support the design and implementation of effective pollution control and prevention strategies. A survey was implemented in 12 locations across China to investigate the content of metals and metalloids, and the main composition of the microbial communities of commercially reared pigs during two growth periods, defined as the early (Q group) and the later fattening growth phases (H group). These data showed widespread Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe pollution in pig feces. The concentration of Zn in the Q group feces…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Distinguishing highly similar gene isoforms with a clustering-based bioinformatics analysis of PacBio single-molecule long reads.

Gene isoforms are commonly found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since each isoform may perform a specific function in response to changing environmental conditions, studying the dynamics of gene isoforms is important in understanding biological processes and disease conditions. However, genome-wide identification of gene isoforms is technically challenging due to the high degree of sequence identity among isoforms. Traditional targeted sequencing approach, involving Sanger sequencing of plasmid-cloned PCR products, has low throughput and is very tedious and time-consuming. Next-generation sequencing technologies such as Illumina and 454 achieve high throughput but their short read lengths are a critical barrier to accurate…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long-term microbiota and virome in a Zürich patient after fecal transplantation against Clostridium difficile infection.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infections that are refractory to conventional treatment. FMT introduces fecal microbes into the patient’s intestine that prevent the recurrence of C. difficile, leading to rapid expansion of bacteria characteristic of healthy microbiota. However, the long-term effects of FMT remain largely unknown. The C. difficile patient described in this paper revealed protracted microbiota adaptation processes from 6 to 42 months post-FMT. Ultimately, bacterial communities were donor similar, suggesting sustainable stool engraftment. Since little is known about the consequences of transmitted viruses during C. difficile infection, we also interrogated virome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Composition and pathogenic potential of a microbial bioremediation product used for crude oil degradation.

A microbial bioremediation product (MBP) used for large-scale oil degradation was investigated for microbial constituents and possible pathogenicity. Aerobic growth on various media yielded >108 colonies mL-1. Full-length 16S rDNA sequencing and fatty acid profiling from morphologically distinct colonies revealed =13 distinct genera. Full-length 16S rDNA library sequencing, by either Sanger or long-read PacBio technology, suggested that up to 21% of the MBP was composed of Arcobacter. Other high abundance microbial constituents (>6%) included the genera Proteus, Enterococcus, Dysgonomonas and several genera in the order Bacteroidales. The MBP was most susceptible to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, and meropenam. MBP exposure of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metataxonomic and metagenomic approaches vs. culture-based techniques for clinical pathology.

Diagnoses that are both timely and accurate are critically important for patients with life-threatening or drug resistant infections. Technological improvements in High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) have led to its use in pathogen detection and its application in clinical diagnoses of infectious diseases. The present study compares two HTS methods, 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing (metataxonomics) and whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing (metagenomics), in their respective abilities to match the same diagnosis as traditional culture methods (culture inference) for patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). The metagenomic analysis was able to produce the same diagnosis as culture methods at the species-level for five…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Single-molecule long-read 16S sequencing to characterize the lung microbiome from mechanically ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia.

In critically ill patients, the development of pneumonia results in significant morbidity and mortality and additional health care costs. The accurate and rapid identification of the microbial pathogens in patients with pulmonary infections might lead to targeted antimicrobial therapy with potentially fewer adverse effects and lower costs. Major advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) allow culture-independent identification of pathogens. The present study used NGS of essentially full-length PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA from the bronchial aspirates of intubated patients with suspected pneumonia. The results from 61 patients demonstrated that sufficient DNA was obtained from 72% of samples, 44% of which (27 samples)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Automated broad range molecular detection of bacteria in clinical samples.

Molecular detection methods, such as quantitative PCR (qPCR), have found their way into clinical microbiology laboratories for the detection of an array of pathogens. Most routinely used methods, however, are directed at specific species. Thus, anything that is not explicitly searched for will be missed. This greatly limits the flexibility and universal application of these techniques. We investigated the application of a rapid universal bacterial molecular identification method, IS-pro, to routine patient samples received in a clinical microbiology laboratory. IS-pro is a eubacterial technique based on the detection and categorization of 16S-23S rRNA gene interspace regions with lengths that are…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The human microbiome and understanding the 16S rRNA gene in translational nursing science.

As more is understood regarding the human microbiome, it is increasingly important for nurse scientists and healthcare practitioners to analyze these microbial communities and their role in health and disease. 16S rRNA sequencing is a key methodology in identifying these bacterial populations that has recently transitioned from use primarily in research to having increased utility in clinical settings.The objectives of this review are to (a) describe 16S rRNA sequencing and its role in answering research questions important to nursing science; (b) provide an overview of the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes and relevant research; and (c) identify future implications for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Role of clinicogenomics in infectious disease diagnostics and public health microbiology.

Clinicogenomics is the exploitation of genome sequence data for diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health purposes. Central to this field is the high-throughput DNA sequencing of genomes and metagenomes. The role of clinicogenomics in infectious disease diagnostics and public health microbiology was the topic of discussion during a recent symposium (session 161) presented at the 115th general meeting of the American Society for Microbiology that was held in New Orleans, LA. What follows is a collection of the most salient and promising aspects from each presentation at the symposium. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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