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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of a novel blaKLUC variant with reduced ß-lactam resistance from an IncA/C group plasmid in a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.

Similar to other CTX-M family enzymes, KLUC is a recently identified and emerging determinant of cefotaxime resistance that has been recovered from at least three Enterobacteriaceae species, including Kluyvera cryocrescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter cloacae. Whether this extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) has been disseminated among commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae is worthy of further investigation. In this study, we screened 739 nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae isolates (240 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 499 E. coli strains) and found that one K. pneumoniae and four E. coli isolates harbored the blaKLUC gene. Three blaKLUC determinants isolated from E. coli were entirely identical to a blaKLUC-3 gene previously recovered…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide analysis of Borrelia turcica and ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’ shows relapsing fever-like genomes with unique genomic links to Lyme disease Borrelia.

Borrelia are tick-borne bacteria that in humans are the aetiological agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Here we present the first genomes of B. turcica and B. tachyglossi, members of a recently described and rapidly expanding Borrelia clade associated with reptile (B. turcica) or echidna (B. tachyglossi) hosts, transmitted by hard ticks, and of unknown pathogenicity. Borrelia tachyglossi and B. turcica genomes are similar to those of relapsing fever Borrelia species, containing a linear ~ 900?kb chromosome, a single long (> 70?kb) linear plasmid, and numerous short (< 40?kb) linear and circular plasmids, as well as a suite of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of the KPC plasmid pCT-KPC334: New insights on the evolutionary pathway of epidemic plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

A novel, non-conjugative plasmid pKP1034 isolated from a fosfomycin-resistant, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia strain KP1034 was recently reported to carry fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12 and rmtB genes, and was hypothesized to evolve from several recombination events of two closely related plasmids, pHN7A8 and pKPC-LK30 [1]. In this study, a plasmid pCT-KPC334 carrying fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, and rmtB genes was identified, providing evidence on the evolutionary pathway of plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterisation of a class 1 integron associated with the formation of quadruple blaGES-5 cassettes from an IncP-1ß group plasmid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Integrons are genetic platforms responsible for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria, primarily due to their association with transposable elements and conjugative plasmids. In this study, a cassette array containing four identical blaGES-5 genes embedded in a class 1 integron located on an IncP-1ß group plasmid from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was identified. Comparative genome analysis and conjugation assay showed that the plasmid pICP-4GES lacked the trbN, trbO and trbP genes but was conjugable. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that compared with single-copy blaGES-5 complementary strains, both the cloned and chromosome-targeted expression of four copies of blaGES-5…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic and methylome analysis of non-virulent D74 and virulent Nagasaki Haemophilus parasuis isolates.

Haemophilus parasuis is a respiratory pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease. H. parasuis isolates can exhibit different virulence capabilities ranging from lethal systemic disease to subclinical carriage. To identify genomic differences between phenotypically distinct strains, we obtained the closed whole-genome sequence annotation and genome-wide methylation patterns for the highly virulent Nagasaki strain and for the non-virulent D74 strain. Evaluation of the virulence-associated genes contained within the genomes of D74 and Nagasaki led to the discovery of a large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems within both genomes. Five predicted hemolysins were identified as unique to Nagasaki and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of the florfenicol resistance floR gene among clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in China.

Florfenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol that is used only for the treatment of animal diseases. A key resistance gene for florfenicol, floR, can spread among bacteria of the same and different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer. To analyze the potential transmission of resistance genes between animal and human pathogens, we investigated floR in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patient samples. floR in human pathogens may originate from animal pathogens and would reflect the risk to human health of using antimicrobial agents in animals.PCR was used to identify floR-positive strains. The floR genes were cloned, and the minimum inhibitory…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Development of New Tools to Detect Colistin-Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae Strains.

The recent discovery of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin is of clinical concern. The worldwide screening of this resistance mechanism among samples of different origins has highlighted the urgent need to improve the detection of colistin-resistant isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories. Currently, phenotypic methods used to detect colistin resistance are not necessarily suitable as the main characteristic of the mcr genes is the low level of resistance that they confer, close to the clinical breakpoint recommended jointly by the CLSI and EUCAST expert systems (S?=?2?mg/L and R?>?2?mg/L). In this context, susceptibility testing recommendations for polymyxins have evolved…

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