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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Unique haplotype structure determination in human genome using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing of targeted full-length fosmids.

Determination of unique individual haplotypes is an essential first step toward understanding how identical genotypes having different phases lead to different biological interpretations of function, phenotype, and disease. Genome-wide methods for identifying individual genetic variation have been limited in their ability to acquire phased, extended, and complete genomic sequences that are long enough to assemble haplotypes with high confidence. We explore a recombineering approach for isolation and sequencing of a tiling of targeted fosmids to capture interesting regions from human genome. Each individual fosmid contains large genomic fragments (~35?kb) that are sequenced with long-read SMRT technology to generate contiguous long…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Genome in a Bottle: You’ve sequenced. How well did you do?

Purpose: Clinical laboratories, research laboratories and technology developers all need DNA samples with reliably known genotypes in order to help validate and improve their methods. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium (genomeinabottle.org) has been developing Reference Materials with high-accuracy whole genome sequences to support these efforts.Methodology: Our pilot reference material is based on Coriell sample NA12878 and was released in May 2015 as NIST RM 8398 (tinyurl.com/giabpilot). To minimize bias and improve accuracy, 11 whole-genome and 3 exome data sets produced using 5 different technologies were integrated using a systematic arbitration method [1]. The Genome in a Bottle Analysis Group…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Resolving KIR genotypes and haplotypes simultaneously using Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing

The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are widely studied due to the critical role they play in coordinating the innate immune response to infection and disease. Highly accurate, contiguous, long reads, like those generated by SMRT Sequencing, when combined with target-enrichment protocols, provide a straightforward strategy for generating complete de novo assembled KIR haplotypes. We have explored two different methods to capture the KIR region; one applying the use of fosmid clones and one using Nimblegen capture.

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Multiplex target enrichment using barcoded multi-kilobase fragments and probe-based capture technologies

Target enrichment capture methods allow scientists to rapidly interrogate important genomic regions of interest for variant discovery, including SNPs, gene isoforms, and structural variation. Custom targeted sequencing panels are important for characterizing heterogeneous, complex diseases and uncovering the genetic basis of inherited traits with more uniform coverage when compared to PCR-based strategies. With the increasing availability of high-quality reference genomes, customized gene panels are readily designed with high specificity to capture genomic regions of interest, thus enabling scientists to expand their research scope from a single individual to larger cohort studies or population-wide investigations. Coupled with PacBio® long-read sequencing, these…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Enrichment of unamplified DNA and long-read SMRT Sequencing to unlock repeat expansion disorders

Nucleotide repeat expansions are a major cause of neurological and neuromuscular disease in humans, however, the nature of these genomic regions makes characterizing them extremely challenging. Accurate DNA sequencing of repeat expansions using short-read sequencing technologies is difficult, as short-read technologies often cannot read through regions of low sequence complexity. Additionally, these short reads do not span the entire region of interest and therefore sequence assembly is required. Lastly, most target enrichment methods are reliant upon amplification which adds the additional caveat of PCR bias. We have developed a novel, amplification-free enrichment technique that employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system for specific…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Characterizing the pan-genome of maize with PacBio SMRT Sequencing

Maize is an amazingly diverse crop. A study in 20051 demonstrated that half of the genome sequence and one-third of the gene content between two inbred lines of maize were not shared. This diversity, which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than the diversity found between humans and chimpanzees, highlights the inability of a single reference genome to represent the full pan-genome of maize and all its variants. Here we present and review several efforts to characterize the complete diversity within maize using the highly accurate long reads of PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing. These methods provide…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Mitochondrial DNA sequencing using PacBio SMRT technology

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a compact, double-stranded circular genome of 16,569 bp with a cytosine-rich light (L) chain and a guanine-rich heavy (H) chain. mtDNA mutations have been increasingly recognized as important contributors to an array of human diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, colorectal cancer and Kearns–Sayre syndrome. mtDNA mutations can affect all of the 1000-10,000 copies of the mitochondrial genome present in a cell (homoplasmic mutation) or only a subset of copies (heteroplasmic mutation). The ratio of normal to mutant mtDNAs within cells is a significant factor in whether mutations will result in disease, as well as…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

The value of long read amplicon sequencing for clinical applications

NGS is commonly used for amplicon sequencing in clinical applications to study genetic disorders and detect disease-causing mutations. This approach can be plagued by limited ability to phase sequence variants and makes interpretation of sequence data difficult when pseudogenes are present. Long-read highly accurate amplicon sequencing can provide very accurate, efficient, high throughput (through multiplexing) sequences from single molecules, with read lengths largely limited by PCR. Data is easy to interpret; phased variants and breakpoints are present within high fidelity individual reads. Here we show SMRT Sequencing of the PMS2 and OPN1 (MW and LW) genes using the Sequel System.…

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Tuesday, June 1, 2021

A workflow for the comprehensive detection and prioritization of variants in human genomes with PacBio HiFi reads

PacBio HiFi reads (minimum 99% accuracy, 15-25 kb read length) have emerged as a powerful data type for comprehensive variant detection in human genomes. The HiFi read length extends confident mapping and variant calling to repetitive regions of the genome that are not accessible with short reads. Read length also improves detection of structural variants (SVs), with recall exceeding that of short reads by over 30%. High read quality allows for accurate single nucleotide variant and small indel detection, with precision and recall matching that of short reads. While many tools have been developed to take advantage of these qualities…

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Friday, February 5, 2021

ASHG Virtual Poster: Enrichment of unamplified DNA and long-read SMRT Sequencing to unlock repeat expansion disorders

PacBio’s Jenny Ekholm presents this ASHG 2016 poster on a new method being developed that enriches for unamplified DNA and uses SMRT Sequencing to characterize repeat expansion disorders. Incorporating the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target specific genes allows for amplification-free enrichment to preserve epigenetic information and avoid PCR bias. Internal studies have shown that the approach can successfully be used to target and sequence the CAG repeat responsible for Huntington’s disease, the repeat associated with ALS, and more. The approach allows for pooling many samples and sequencing with a single SMRT Cell.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

ASHG PacBio Workshop: Identification and characterization of informative genetic structural variants for neurodegenerative diseases

Michael Lutz, from the Duke University Medical Center, discussed a recently published software tool that can now be used in a pipeline with SMRT Sequencing data to find structural variant biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases with a focus on Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, and Lewy body dementia. His team is particularly interested in short sequence repeats and short tandem repeats, which have already been implicated in neurodegenerative disease.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: An introduction to PacBio’s long-read sequencing & how it has been used to make important scientific discoveries

In this Webinar, we will give an introduction to Pacific Biosciences’ single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. After showing how the system works, we will discuss the main features of the technology with an emphasis on the difference between systematic error and random error and how SMRT sequencing produces better consensus accuracy than other systems. Following this, we will discuss several ground-breaking discoveries in medical science that were made possible by the longs reads and high accuracy of SMRT Sequencing.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

PAG Conference: The Bat1K project: bat genome, biology and implications

In this presentation, Sonja Vernes of the Max Plank Institute shares her work with the Bat1K project which aims to catalog the genetic diversity of all living bat species. She highlights the unique biology of bats, from their widely varying sizes to their capacity for healthy aging and disease resistance and provides recent findings from ongoing efforts to sequence and annotate the genomes of 21 phylogenetic families of bats.

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Friday, February 5, 2021

Webinar: Beyond Gene Editing: How CRISPR/Cas9 enables sequencing of difficult regions of the genome

In this webinar, Jenny Ekholm and Paul Kotturi provide an overview of the PacBio No-Amp targeted sequencing application and its uses for targeting hard-to-amplify genes. This approach couples CRISPR-Cas9 with Single Molecule, Real Time (SMRT) Sequencing to enrich targets, without the need for PCR amplification, and generate complete sequence information with base-level resolution.

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