April 21, 2020  |  

Efficacy of Newly Isolated and Highly Potent Bacteriophages in a Mouse Model of XDRAB Bacteremia.

Bacteremia can be caused by Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical manifestations ranging from transient bacteremia to septic shock. Extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) strains producing the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase, which confers resistance to all ß-lactams including carbapenems, have emerged and infected patients suffer increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospitalization. The lack of new antimicrobials led to a renewed interest into phage therapy, the so-called forgotten cure. Accordingly, we tested new lytic bacteriophages in a Galleria mellonella and a mouse model of XDRAB-induced bacteremia.Galleria mellonella were challenged with 5.105 CFU of the XDRAB strain FER. Phages vB_AbaM_3054 and vB_AbaM_3090 were administrated alone or in combination 30?min. after bacterial challenge. Saline and imipenem were injected as controls. Mice were challenged i.p. with 6.107 CFU of A. baumannii FER. vB_AbaM_3054 and vB_AbaM_3090 were administrated i.p. alone or in combination 2?h after bacterial challenge. Saline and imipenem were injected as controls. Larvae and mice survival were followed for 7 days and compared with Log-Rank (Mantel-Cox) and Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon tests.Phage-based treatments showed high efficacy in larvae (ca. 100% survival at 80?h) and mice (ca. 100% survival at day 7) compared to the untreated control (0% survival at 48?h and 24?h in larvae and mice, respectively).The present data reporting efficacy of phage therapy in a mouse model of bacteremia support the development of phage-based drugs to manage infection due to multi-drug resistant A. baumannii and particularly XDRAB.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

April 21, 2020  |  

Design and Preclinical Development of a Phage Product for the Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

Bacteriophages, viruses that only kill specific bacteria, are receiving substantial attention as nontraditional antibacterial agents that may help alleviate the growing antibiotic resistance problem in medicine. We describe the design and preclinical development of AB-SA01, a fixed-composition bacteriophage product intended to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. AB-SA01 contains three naturally occurring, obligately lytic myoviruses related to Staphylococcus phage K. AB-SA01 component phages have been sequenced and contain no identifiable bacterial virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. In vitro, AB-SA01 killed 94.5% of 401 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate ones for a total of 95% of the 205 known multidrug-resistant isolates. The spontaneous frequency of resistance to AB-SA01 was =3 × 10-9, and resistance emerging to one component phage could be complemented by the activity of another component phage. In both neutropenic and immunocompetent mouse models of acute pneumonia, AB-SA01 reduced lung S. aureus populations equivalently to vancomycin. Overall, the inherent characteristics of AB-SA01 component phages meet regulatory and generally accepted criteria for human use, and the preclinical data presented here have supported production under good manufacturing practices and phase 1 clinical studies with AB-SA01.

April 21, 2020  |  

Complete genome sequence of a novel bacteriophage, PBKP05, infecting Klebsiella pneumoniae.

An increasing number of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have been found to be multi-drug resistant. A novel bacteriophage, PBKP05, which infects K. pneumoniae, was isolated and characterized. It has a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 30,240 base pairs in length. Its G+C content is 53%, and 47 putative open reading frames are functionally annotated. This phage can be a candidate material for phage therapy.

April 21, 2020  |  

Biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals are an active carrier for Salmonella bacteriophages.

The use of bacteriophages represents a valid alternative to conventional antimicrobial treatments, overcoming the widespread bacterial antibiotic resistance phenomenon. In this work, we evaluated whether biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals are able to enhance some properties of bacteriophages. The final goal of this study was to demonstrate that biomimetic HA nanocrystals can be used for bacteriophage delivery in the context of bacterial infections, and contribute – at the same time – to enhance some of the biological properties of the same bacteriophages such as stability, preservation, antimicrobial activity, and so on.Phage isolation and characterization were carried out by using Mitomycin C and following double-layer agar technique. The biomimetic HA water suspension was synthesized in order to obtain nanocrystals with plate-like morphology and nanometric dimensions. The interaction of phages with the HA was investigated by dynamic light scattering and Zeta potential analyses. The cytotoxicity and intracellular killing activities of the phage-HA complex were evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The bacterial inhibition capacity of the complex was assessed on chicken minced meat samples infected with Salmonella Rissen.Our data highlighted that the biomimetic HA nanocrystal-bacteriophage complex was more stable and more effective than phages alone in all tested experimental conditions.Our results evidenced the important contribution of biomimetic HA nanocrystals: they act as an excellent carrier for bacteriophage delivery and enhance its biological characteristics. This study confirmed the significant role of the mineral HA when it is complexed with biological entities like bacteriophages, as it has been shown for molecules such as lactoferrin.

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