September 22, 2019  |  

Analysis of microbial community structure of pit mud for Chinese strong-flavor liquor fermentation using next generation DNA sequencing of full-length 16S rRNA

The pit is the necessary bioreactor for brewing process of Chinese strong-flavor liquor. Pit mud in pits contains a large number of microorganisms and is a complex ecosystem. The analysis of bacterial flora in pit mud is of great significance to understand liquor fermentation mechanisms. To overcome taxonomic limitations of short reads in 16S rRNA variable region sequencing, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing of near full-length 16S rRNA gene to analyze microbial compositions of different types of pit mud that produce different qualities of strong-flavor liquor. The results showed that the main species in pit mud were Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3, Pseudomonas veronii, Serratia marcescens WW4, and Clostridium leptum in Ruminiclostridium. The microbial diversity of pit mud with different quality was significantly different. From poor to good quality of pit mud (thus the quality of liquor), the relative abundances of Ruminiclostridium and Syntrophomonas in Firmicutes was increased, and the relative abundance of Olsenella in Actinobacteria also increased, but the relative abundances of Pseudomonas and Serratia in Proteobacteria were decreased. The surprising findings of this study include that the diversity of intermediate level quality of N pit mud was the lowest, and the diversity levels of high quality pit mud G and poor quality pit mud B were similar. Correlation analysis showed that there were high positive correlations (r > 0.8) among different microbial groups in the flora. Based on the analysis of the microbial structures of pit mud in different quality, the good quality pit mud has a higher microbial diversity, but how this higher diversity and differential microbial compositions contribute to better quality of liquor fermentation remains obscure.

September 22, 2019  |  

Assessment of the physicochemical properties and bacterial composition of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium-fermented Astragalus membranaceus using single molecule, real-time sequencing technology.

We investigated if fermentation with probiotic cultures could improve the production of health-promoting biological compounds in Astragalus membranaceus. We tested the probiotics Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium?+?Lactobacillus plantarum and applied PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) to evaluate the quality of Astragalus fermentation. We found that the production rates of acetic acid, methylacetic acid, aethyl acetic acid and lactic acid using E. faecium?+?L. plantarum were 1866.24?mg/kg on day 15, 203.80?mg/kg on day 30, 996.04?mg/kg on day 15, and 3081.99?mg/kg on day 20, respectively. Other production rates were: polysaccharides, 9.43%, 8.51%, and 7.59% on day 10; saponins, 19.6912?mg/g, 21.6630?mg/g and 20.2084?mg/g on day 15; and flavonoids, 1.9032?mg/g, 2.0835?mg/g, and 1.7086?mg/g on day 20 using E. faecium, L. plantarum and E. faecium?+?L. plantarum, respectively. SMRT was used to analyze microbial composition, and we found that E. faecium and L. plantarum were the most prevalent species after fermentation for 3 days. E. faecium?+?L. plantarum gave more positive effects than single strains in the Astragalus solid state fermentation process. Our data demonstrated that the SMRT sequencing platform is applicable to quality assessment of Astragalus fermentation.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae R11 reveals multiple genes potentially associated with high-level polymyxin E resistance.

Enterobacter cloacae strain R11 is a multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from sewage water near a swine feedlot in China. Strain R11 can survive in medium containing up to 192 µg/mL polymyxin E, indicating a tolerance for this antibiotic that is significantly higher than that reported for other gram-negative bacteria. In this study, conjugation experiments showed that partial polymyxin E resistance could be transferred from strain R11 to Escherichia coli strain 25922, revealing that some genes related to polymyxin E resistance are plasmid-based. The complete genome sequence of this strain was determined, yielding a total of 4?993?008 bp (G+C content, 53.15%) and 4908 genes for the circular chromosome and 4 circular plasmids. Genome analysis revealed a total of 73 putative antibiotic resistance genes, including several polymyxin E resistance genes and genes potentially involved in multidrug resistance. These data provide insights into the genetic basis of the polymyxin E resistance and multidrug resistance of E. cloacae.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence and characterization of a protein-glutaminase producing strain, Chryseobacterium proteolyticum QSH1265.

Recently, an enzyme named protein-glutaminase (PG) has been identified as a new type of enzyme with significant potential for deamidation of food proteins. The enzyme is shown to be expressed as a pre-pro-protein with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids, a pro-sequence of 114 amino acids, and a mature PG of 185 amino acids. The microbial enzyme PG specifically catalyzes deamidation of proteins without protein hydrolysis pretreatment and only reacts with glutamine residues in the side-chains of proteins or long peptides. All these attributes suggest that it has a great potential for food industrial applications. However, until recently, there have been relatively few studies of the PG-producing strains. A strain named Chryseobacterium proteolyticum QSH1265 which can produce PG was isolated from a soil sample collected in Songjiang, Shanghai, China. Its enzyme activity was about 0.34 ± 0.01 U/mL when using carboxybenzoxy-Gln-Gly as a substrate. The strain can produce acid from D-glucose, maltose, L-arabinose sucrose, glycerol, and mannitol but not fructose, and it is also positive for indole production and urease. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of this strain via PacBio RSII sequencing. The C. proteolyticum QSH1265 genome consists of a circular chromosome with total length of 4,849,803 bp without any plasmids. All of 4563 genes were predicted including 4459 genes for protein-coding and 104 RNA-relative genes with an average G+C content of 36.16%. The KEGG and COG annotation provide information for the specific function of proteins encoded in the genome, such as proteases, chromoproteins, stress proteins, antiporters, etc. A highly conserved hypothetical protein shares a promoter with the gene encoding the protein-glutaminase enzyme. The genome sequence and preliminary annotation provide valuable genetic information for further study of C. proteolyticum.

September 21, 2019  |  

Potato late blight field resistance from QTL dPI09c is conferred by the NB-LRR gene R8.

Following the often short-lived protection that major nucleotide binding, leucine-rich-repeat (NB-LRR) resistance genes offer against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans, field resistance was thought to provide a more durable alternative to prevent late blight disease. We previously identified the QTL dPI09c on potato chromosome 9 as a more durable field resistance source against late blight. Here, the resistance QTL was fine-mapped to a 186 kb region. The interval corresponds to a larger, 389 kb, genomic region in the potato reference genome of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja doubled monoploid clone DM1-3 (DM) and from which functional NB-LRRs R8, R9a, Rpi-moc1, and Rpi_vnt1 have arisen independently in wild species. dRenSeq analysis of parental clones alongside resistant and susceptible bulks of the segregating population B3C1HP showed full sequence representation of R8. This was independently validated using long-range PCR and screening of a bespoke bacterial artificial chromosome library. The latter enabled a comparative analysis of the sequence variation in this locus in diverse Solanaceae. We reveal for the first time that broad spectrum and durable field resistance against P. infestans is conferred by the NB-LRR gene R8, which is thought to provide narrow spectrum race-specific resistance.

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