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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation polyploid phylogenetics: rapid resolution of hybrid polyploid complexes using PacBio single-molecule sequencing.

Difficulties in generating nuclear data for polyploids have impeded phylogenetic study of these groups. We describe a high-throughput protocol and an associated bioinformatics pipeline (Pipeline for Untangling Reticulate Complexes (Purc)) that is able to generate these data quickly and conveniently, and demonstrate its efficacy on accessions from the fern family Cystopteridaceae. We conclude with a demonstration of the downstream utility of these data by inferring a multi-labeled species tree for a subset of our accessions. We amplified four c. 1-kb-long nuclear loci and sequenced them in a parallel-tagged amplicon sequencing approach using the PacBio platform. Purc infers the final sequences…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Strategies for complete plastid genome sequencing.

Plastid sequencing is an essential tool in the study of plant evolution. This high-copy organelle is one of the most technically accessible regions of the genome, and its sequence conservation makes it a valuable region for comparative genome evolution, phylogenetic analysis and population studies. Here, we discuss recent innovations and approaches for de novo plastid assembly that harness genomic tools. We focus on technical developments including low-cost sequence library preparation approaches for genome skimming, enrichment via hybrid baits and methylation-sensitive capture, sequence platforms with higher read outputs and longer read lengths, and automated tools for assembly. These developments allow for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Interrogating the “unsequenceable” genomic trinucleotide repeat disorders by long-read sequencing.

Microsatellite expansion, such as trinucleotide repeat expansion (TRE), is known to cause a number of genetic diseases. Sanger sequencing and next-generation short-read sequencing are unable to interrogate TRE reliably. We developed a novel algorithm called RepeatHMM to estimate repeat counts from long-read sequencing data. Evaluation on simulation data, real amplicon sequencing data on two repeat expansion disorders, and whole-genome sequencing data generated by PacBio and Oxford Nanopore technologies showed superior performance over competing approaches. We concluded that long-read sequencing coupled with RepeatHMM can estimate repeat counts on microsatellites and can interrogate the “unsequenceable” genomic trinucleotide repeat disorders.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Hybrid de novo genome assembly and centromere characterization of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly.We used a combination of advanced genomic technologies to iteratively resolve conflicts and super-scaffold the M. murinus genome.We improved the M. murinus genome assembly to a scaffold N50 of 93.32 Mb.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assembly of an early-matured japonica (Geng) rice genome, Suijing18, based on PacBio and Illumina sequencing.

The early-matured japonica (Geng) rice variety, Suijing18 (SJ18), carries multiple elite traits including durable blast resistance, good grain quality, and high yield. Using PacBio SMRT technology, we produced over 25?Gb of long-read sequencing raw data from SJ18 with a coverage of 62×. Using Illumina paired-end whole-genome shotgun sequencing technology, we generated 59?Gb of short-read sequencing data from SJ18 (23.6?Gb from a 200?bp library with a coverage of 59× and 35.4?Gb from an 800?bp library with a coverage of 88×). With these data, we assembled a single SJ18 genome and then generated a set of annotation data. These data sets can…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of two plant-associated Pseudomonas putida isolates with increased heavy-metal tolerance.

We report here the complete genome sequences of two Pseudomonas putida isolates recovered from surfac e-sterilized roots of Sida hermaphrodita The two isolates were characterized by an increased tolerance to zinc, cadmium, and lead. Furthermore, the strains showed typical plant growth-promoting properties, such as the production of indole acetic acid, cellulolytic enzymes, and siderophores. Copyright © 2017 Nesme et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Third-generation sequencing and the future of genomics

Third-generation long-range DNA sequencing and mapping technologies are creating a renaissance in high-quality genome sequencing. Unlike second-generation sequencing, which produces short reads a few hundred base-pairs long, third-generation single-molecule technologies generate over 10,000 bp reads or map over 100,000 bp molecules. We analyze how increased read lengths can be used to address long-standing problems in de novo genome assembly, structural variation analysis and haplotype phasing.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Minimap and miniasm: fast mapping and de novo assembly for noisy long sequences.

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore technologies (ONT) produce reads over 10?kb in length, which have enabled high-quality genome assembly at an affordable cost. However, at present, long reads have an error rate as high as 10-15%. Complex and computationally intensive pipelines are required to assemble such reads.We present a new mapper, minimap and a de novo assembler, miniasm, for efficiently mapping and assembling SMRT and ONT reads without an error correction stage. They can often assemble a sequencing run of bacterial data into a single contig in a few minutes, and assemble 45-fold Caenorhabditis elegans data…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Microsatellite length scoring by Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing – Effects of sequence structure and PCR regime.

Microsatellites are DNA sequences consisting of repeated, short (1-6 bp) sequence motifs that are highly mutable by enzymatic slippage during replication. Due to their high intrinsic variability, microsatellites have important applications in population genetics, forensics, genome mapping, as well as cancer diagnostics and prognosis. The current analytical standard for microsatellites is based on length scoring by high precision electrophoresis, but due to increasing efficiency next-generation sequencing techniques may provide a viable alternative. Here, we evaluated single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing, implemented in the PacBio series of sequencing apparatuses, as a means of microsatellite length scoring. To this end we…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genomic and transcriptional landscape analysis using third-generation sequencing: a case study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D.

Completion of eukaryal genomes can be difficult task with the highly repetitive sequences along the chromosomes and short read lengths of second-generation sequencing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK113-7D, widely used as a model organism and a cell factory, was selected for this study to demonstrate the superior capability of very long sequence reads for de novo genome assembly. We generated long reads using two common third-generation sequencing technologies (Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)) and used short reads obtained using Illumina sequencing for error correction. Assembly of the reads derived from all three technologies resulted in complete sequences for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ReadTools: A universal toolkit for handling sequence data from different sequencing platforms.

Sequencing whole genomes has become a standard research tool in many disciplines including Molecular Ecology, but the rapid technological advances in combination with several competing platforms have resulted in a confusing diversity of formats. This lack of standard formats causes several problems, such as undocumented preprocessing steps or the loss of information in downstream software tools, which do not account for the specifics of the different available formats. ReadTools is an open-source Java toolkit designed to standardize and preprocess read data from different platforms. It manages FASTQ- and SAM-formatted inputs while dealing with platform-specific peculiarities and provides a standard SAM…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A draft genome sequence for the Ixodes scapularis cell line, ISE6

Background: The tick cell line ISE6, derived from Ixodes scapularis, is commonly used for amplification and detection of arboviruses in environmental or clinical samples. Methods: To assist with sequence-based assays, we sequenced the ISE6 genome with single-molecule, long-read technology. Results: The draft assembly appears near complete based on gene content analysis, though it appears to lack some instances of repeats in this highly repetitive genome. The assembly appears to have separated the haplotypes at many loci. DNA short read pairs, used for validation only, mapped to the cell line assembly at a higher rate than they mapped to the Ixodes…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fast-SG: an alignment-free algorithm for hybrid assembly.

Long-read sequencing technologies are the ultimate solution for genome repeats, allowing near reference-level reconstructions of large genomes. However, long-read de novo assembly pipelines are computationally intense and require a considerable amount of coverage, thereby hindering their broad application to the assembly of large genomes. Alternatively, hybrid assembly methods that combine short- and long-read sequencing technologies can reduce the time and cost required to produce de novo assemblies of large genomes.Here, we propose a new method, called Fast-SG, that uses a new ultrafast alignment-free algorithm specifically designed for constructing a scaffolding graph using light-weight data structures. Fast-SG can construct the graph…

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