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Friday, July 19, 2019

De novo assembly of haplotype-resolved genomes with trio binning.

Complex allelic variation hampers the assembly of haplotype-resolved sequences from diploid genomes. We developed trio binning, an approach that simplifies haplotype assembly by resolving allelic variation before assembly. In contrast with prior approaches, the effectiveness of our method improved with increasing heterozygosity. Trio binning uses short reads from two parental genomes to first partition long reads from an offspring into haplotype-specific sets. Each haplotype is then assembled independently, resulting in a complete diploid reconstruction. We used trio binning to recover both haplotypes of a diploid human genome and identified complex structural variants missed by alternative approaches. We sequenced an F1…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Allele-defined genome of the autopolyploid sugarcane Saccharum spontaneum L.

Modern sugarcanes are polyploid interspecific hybrids, combining high sugar content from Saccharum officinarum with hardiness, disease resistance and ratooning of Saccharum spontaneum. Sequencing of a haploid S. spontaneum, AP85-441, facilitated the assembly of 32 pseudo-chromosomes comprising 8 homologous groups of 4 members each, bearing 35,525 genes with alleles defined. The reduction of basic chromosome number from 10 to 8 in S. spontaneum was caused by fissions of 2 ancestral chromosomes followed by translocations to 4 chromosomes. Surprisingly, 80% of nucleotide binding site-encoding genes associated with disease resistance are located in 4 rearranged chromosomes and 51% of those in rearranged regions.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genetic stability of pneumococcal isolates during 35 days of human experimental carriage.

Pneumococcal carriage is a reservoir for transmission and a precursor to pneumococcal disease. The experimental human pneumococcal carriage model provides a useful tool to aid vaccine licensure through the measurement of vaccine efficacy against carriage (VEcol). Documentation of the genetic stability of the experimental human pneumococcal carriage model is important to further strengthen confidence in its safety and conclusions, enabling it to further facilitate vaccine licensure through providing evidence of VEcol.229 isolates were sequenced from 10 volunteers in whom experimental human pneumococcal carriage was established, sampled over a period of 35 days. Multiple isolates from within a single volunteer at…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii genome: de novo sequencing and assembly in single contigs of the chromosome, circular plasmid pSLE1 and linear plasmid pSLE2.

Next Generation DNA Sequencing (NGS) and genome mining of actinomycetes and other microorganisms is currently one of the most promising strategies for the discovery of novel bioactive natural products, potentially revealing novel chemistry and enzymology involved in their biosynthesis. This approach also allows rapid insights into the biosynthetic potential of microorganisms isolated from unexploited habitats and ecosystems, which in many cases may prove difficult to culture and manipulate in the laboratory. Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii (formerly Streptomyces sp. strain C34) was isolated from the hyper-arid high-altitude Atacama Desert in Chile and shown to produce novel polyketide antibiotics.Here we present the de novo…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome and transcriptome of the regeneration-competent flatworm, Macrostomum lignano.

The free-living flatworm, Macrostomum lignano has an impressive regenerative capacity. Following injury, it can regenerate almost an entirely new organism because of the presence of an abundant somatic stem cell population, the neoblasts. This set of unique properties makes many flatworms attractive organisms for studying the evolution of pathways involved in tissue self-renewal, cell-fate specification, and regeneration. The use of these organisms as models, however, is hampered by the lack of a well-assembled and annotated genome sequences, fundamental to modern genetic and molecular studies. Here we report the genomic sequence of M. lignano and an accompanying characterization of its transcriptome.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil.

We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Contiguity: Contig adjacency graph construction and visualisation

Contiguity is interactive software for the visualization and manipulation of de novo genome assemblies. 14 Contiguity creates and displays information on contig adjacency which is contextualized by the 15 simultaneous display of a comparison between assembled contigs and reference sequence. Where 16 scaffolders allow unambiguous connections between contigs to be resolved into a single scaffold, 17 Contiguity allows the user to create all potential scaffolds in ambiguous regions of the genome. This 18 enables the resolution of novel sequence or structural variants from the assembly. In addition, 19 Contiguity provides a sequencing and assembly agnostic approach for the creation of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an agent of lameness in broiler chickens.

Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Leafy spurge genomics: A model perennial weed to investigate development, stress responses, and invasiveness

Leafy spurge is wild flower native to Europe that has become an invasive perennial weed in the northern great plains of the USA and Canada. Leafy spurge primarily infests range and recreation lands and costs US land managers millions dollars annually. In its invaded range, leafy spurge can form vast monocultures that significantly impact native flora and fauna and has been attributed to reduced populations of endangered species such as the prairie fringed orchid. Leafy spurge has remarkable plasticity and can persist under environmental extremes—primarily due to the formation of hundreds of underground adventitious buds that can form on its…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved draft genome sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum strain ATCC 6013 (DSM 525) using a hybrid next-generation sequencing approach.

We present an improved draft genome sequence for Clostridium pasteurianum strain ATCC 6013 (DSM 525), the type strain of the species and an important solventogenic bacterium with industrial potential. Availability of a near-complete genome sequence will enable strain engineering of this promising bacterium. Copyright © 2014 Pyne et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evaluation and validation of de novo and hybrid assembly techniques to derive high-quality genome sequences.

To assess the potential of different types of sequence data combined with de novo and hybrid assembly approaches to improve existing draft genome sequences.Illumina, 454 and PacBio sequencing technologies were used to generate de novo and hybrid genome assemblies for four different bacteria, which were assessed for quality using summary statistics (e.g. number of contigs, N50) and in silico evaluation tools. Differences in predictions of multiple copies of rDNA operons for each respective bacterium were evaluated by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and then the validated results were applied as an additional criterion to rank assemblies. In general, assemblies using longer…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Association mapping, patterns of linkage disequilibrium and selection in the vicinity of the PHYTOCHROME C gene in pearl millet.

Linkage analysis confirmed the association in the region of PHYC in pearl millet. The comparison of genes found in this region suggests that PHYC is the best candidate. Major efforts are currently underway to dissect the phenotype-genotype relationship in plants and animals using existing populations. This method exploits historical recombinations accumulated in these populations. However, linkage disequilibrium sometimes extends over a relatively long distance, particularly in genomic regions containing polymorphisms that have been targets for selection. In this case, many genes in the region could be statistically associated with the trait shaped by the selected polymorphism. Statistical analyses could help…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Global phylogenomic analysis of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages.

The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). However, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (non-Ec-Sp) have also been isolated globally, mainly in carriage studies. It is unknown if non-Ec-Sp evolve sporadically, if they have high antibiotic nonsusceptiblity rates and a unique, specific gene content. Here, whole-genome sequencing of 131 non-Ec-Sp isolates sourced from 17 different locations around the world was performed. Results revealed a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. The sporadic lineages clustered with a previously sequenced, global collection of encapsulated S. pneumoniae…

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