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Friday, July 19, 2019

The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The impact of third generation genomic technologies on plant genome assembly.

Since the introduction of next generation sequencing, plant genome assembly projects do not need to rely on dedicated research facilities or community-wide consortia anymore, even individual research groups can sequence and assemble the genomes they are interested in. However, such assemblies are typically not based on the entire breadth of genomic technologies including genetic and physical maps and their contiguities tend to be low compared to the full-length gold standard reference sequences. Recently emerging third generation genomic technologies like long-read sequencing or optical mapping promise to bridge this quality gap and enable simple and cost-effective solutions for chromosomal-level assemblies.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Chromosomal integration of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene, blaKPC, in Klebsiella species is elusive but not rare.

Carbapenemase genes in Enterobacteriaceae are mostly described as being plasmid associated. However, the genetic context of carbapenemase genes is not always confirmed in epidemiological surveys, and the frequency of their chromosomal integration therefore is unknown. A previously sequenced collection of blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from a single U.S. institution (2007 to 2012; n = 281 isolates from 182 patients) was analyzed to identify chromosomal insertions of Tn4401, the transposon most frequently harboring blaKPC Using a combination of short- and long-read sequencing, we confirmed five independent chromosomal integration events from 6/182 (3%) patients, corresponding to 15/281 (5%) isolates. Three patients had isolates identified…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genomic confirmation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission from deceased donor to liver transplant recipient.

In a liver transplant recipient with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surgical site and bloodstream infection, a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing identified that donor and recipient VRE isolates were highly similar when compared to time-matched hospital isolates. Comparison of de novo assembled isolate genomes was highly suggestive of transplant transmission rather than hospital-acquired transmission and also identified subtle internal rearrangements between donor and recipient missed by other genomic approaches. Given the improved resolution, whole-genome assembly of pathogen genomes is likely to become an essential tool for investigation of potential organ transplant transmissions.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Genomic structure of the horse major histocompatibility complex class II region resolved using PacBio long-read sequencing technology.

The mammalian Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region contains several gene families characterized by highly polymorphic loci with extensive nucleotide diversity, copy number variation of paralogous genes, and long repetitive sequences. This structural complexity has made it difficult to construct a reliable reference sequence of the horse MHC region. In this study, we used long-read single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence eight Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the horse MHC class II region. The final assembly resulted in a 1,165,328?bp continuous gap free sequence with 35 manually curated genomic loci of which 23 were…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing resolves the detailed structure of complex satellite DNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

Highly repetitive satellite DNA (satDNA) repeats are found in most eukaryotic genomes. SatDNAs are rapidly evolving and have roles in genome stability and chromosome segregation. Their repetitive nature poses a challenge for genome assembly and makes progress on the detailed study of satDNA structure difficult. Here, we use single-molecule sequencing long reads from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to determine the detailed structure of all major autosomal complex satDNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster, with a particular focus on the 260-bp and Responder satellites. We determine the optimal de novo assembly methods and parameter combinations required to produce a high-quality assembly of these…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Complete genome sequences of isolates of Enterococcus faecium sequence type 117, a globally disseminated multidrug-resistant clone.

The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant sequence type 117 (ST117) Enterococcus faecium has been reported in several European countries. ST117 has been detected in Spanish hospitals as one of the main causes of bloodstream infections. We analyzed genome variations of ST117 strains isolated in Madrid and describe the first ST117 closed genome sequences. Copyright © 2017 Tedim et al.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Contrasting evolutionary genome dynamics between domesticated and wild yeasts.

Structural rearrangements have long been recognized as an important source of genetic variation, with implications in phenotypic diversity and disease, yet their detailed evolutionary dynamics remain elusive. Here we use long-read sequencing to generate end-to-end genome assemblies for 12 strains representing major subpopulations of the partially domesticated yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus. These population-level high-quality genomes with comprehensive annotation enable precise definition of chromosomal boundaries between cores and subtelomeres and a high-resolution view of evolutionary genome dynamics. In chromosomal cores, S. paradoxus shows faster accumulation of balanced rearrangements (inversions, reciprocal translocations and transpositions), whereas S. cerevisiae…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Multiple independent changes in mitochondrial genome conformation in chlamydomonadalean algae

Chlamydomonadalean green algae are no stranger to linear mitochondrial genomes, particularly members of the Reinhardtinia clade. At least nine different Reinhardtinia species are known to have linear mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs), including the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Thus, it is no surprise that some have suggested that the most recent common ancestor of the Reinhardtinia clade had a linear mtDNA. But the recent uncovering of circular-mapping mtDNAs in a range of Reinhardtinia algae, such as Volvox carteri and Tetrabaena socialis, has shed doubt on this hypothesis. Here, we explore mtDNA sequence and structure within the colonial Reinhardtinia algae Yamagishiella unicocca and…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Evolutionary restoration of fertility in an interspecies hybrid yeast, by whole-genome duplication after a failed mating-type switch.

Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements. Surprisingly, Z. parabailii has a full sexual cycle and is genetically haploid. It goes through mating-type switching and autodiploidization, followed…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A case study into microbial genome assembly gap sequences and finishing strategies.

This study characterized regions of DNA which remained unassembled by either PacBio and Illumina sequencing technologies for seven bacterial genomes. Two genomes were manually finished using bioinformatics and PCR/Sanger sequencing approaches and regions not assembled by automated software were analyzed. Gaps present within Illumina assemblies mostly correspond to repetitive DNA regions such as multiple rRNA operon sequences. PacBio gap sequences were evaluated for several properties such as GC content, read coverage, gap length, ability to form strong secondary structures, and corresponding annotations. Our hypothesis that strong secondary DNA structures blocked DNA polymerases and contributed to gap sequences was not accepted.…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

PacBio but not Illumina technology can achieve fast, accurate and complete closure of the high GC, complex Burkholderia pseudomallei two-chromosome genome

Although PacBio third-generation sequencers have improved the read lengths of genome sequencing which facilitates the assembly of complete genomes, no study has reported success in using PacBio data alone to completely sequence a two-chromosome bacterial genome from a single library in a single run. Previous studies using earlier versions of sequencing chemistries have at most been able to finish bacterial genomes containing only one chromosome with de novo assembly. In this study, we compared the robustness of PacBio RS II, using one SMRT cell and the latest P6-C4 chemistry, with Illumina HiSeq 1500 in sequencing the genome of Burkholderia pseudomallei,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

PacBio sequencing reveals transposable element as a key contributor to genomic plasticity and virulence variation in Magnaporthe oryzae.

The sustainable cultivation of rice, which serves as staple food crop for more than half of the world’s population, is under serious threat due to the huge yield losses inflicted by rice blast disease caused by the globally destructive fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae) (Dean et al., 2012, Nalley et al., 2016, Deng et al., 2017). This filamentous ascomycete fungus is also capable of causing blast infection on other economically important cereal crops, including wheat, millet, and barley, making it the world’s most important plant pathogenic fungus (Zhong et al., 2016). The advent of whole-genome sequencing technology and the subsequent…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Gapless genome assembly of Colletotrichum higginsianum reveals chromosome structure and association of transposable elements with secondary metabolite gene clusters.

The ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum causes anthracnose disease of brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous versions of the genome sequence were highly fragmented, causing errors in the prediction of protein-coding genes and preventing the analysis of repetitive sequences and genome architecture. Here, we re-sequenced the genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and, in combination with optical map data, this provided a gapless assembly of all twelve chromosomes except for the ribosomal DNA repeat cluster on chromosome 7. The more accurate gene annotation made possible by this new assembly revealed a large repertoire of secondary metabolism (SM)…

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