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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length transcriptome sequences of ephemeral plant Arabidopsis pumila provides insight into gene expression dynamics during continuous salt stress.

Arabidopsis pumila is native to the desert region of northwest China and it is extraordinarily well adapted to the local semi-desert saline soil, thus providing a candidate plant system for environmental adaptation and salt-tolerance gene mining. However, understanding of the salt-adaptation mechanism of this species is limited because of genomic sequences scarcity. In the present study, the transcriptome profiles of A. pumila leaf tissues treated with 250 mM NaCl for 0, 0.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h were analyzed using a combination of second-generation sequencing (SGS) and third-generation single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing.Correction of SMRT long reads by SGS short reads…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of transcripts and splice isoforms in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) by single-molecule long-read sequencing.

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important cool-season legume plant, which is the most widely planted forage legume after alfalfa. Although a draft genome sequence was published already, the sequences and completed structure of mRNA transcripts remain unclear, which limit further explore on red clover.In this study, the red clover transcriptome was sequenced using single-molecule long-read sequencing to identify full-length splice isoforms, and 29,730 novel isoforms from known genes and 2194 novel isoforms from novel genes were identified. A total of 5492 alternative splicing events was identified and the majority of alter spliced events in red clover was corrected…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcription-associated mutation promotes RNA complexity in highly expressed genes – A major new source of selectable variation.

Alternatively spliced transcript isoforms are thought to play a critical role for functional diversity. However, the mechanism generating the enormous diversity of spliced transcript isoforms remains unknown, and its biological significance remains unclear. We analyzed transcriptomes in saker falcons, chickens, and mice to show that alternative splicing occurs more frequently, yielding more isoforms, in highly expressed genes. We focused on hemoglobin in the falcon, the most abundantly expressed genes in blood, finding that alternative splicing produces 10-fold more isoforms than expected from the number of splice junctions in the genome. These isoforms were produced mainly by alternative use of de…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Basic characterization of natural transformation in a highly transformable Haemophilus parasuis strain SC1401.

Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer’s disease and pneumonia, incurring serious economic losses in the porcine industry. In this study, natural competence was investigated in H. parasuis. We found competence genes in H. parasuis homologous to ones in Haemophilus influenzae and a high consensus battery of Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP-S) regulons using bioinformatics. High rates of natural competence were found from the onset of stationary-phase growth condition to mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 0.29 to 1.735); this rapidly dropped off as cells reached mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 1.735 to 1.625). As a whole, bacteria cultured in liquid media were observed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multidrug-resistant Escherichia albertii: Co-occurrence of ß-lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes.

Escherichia albertii is an emerging member of the Enterobacteriaceae causing human and animal enteric infections. Antimicrobial resistance among enteropathogens has been reported to be increasing in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in E. albertii isolated from Zigong city, Sichuan province, China. The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The highest prevalence was tetracycline resistance with a rate of 62.7%, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and streptomycin with a rate of 56.9 and 51.0%, respectively. All isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analyzing AbrB-knockout effects through genome and transcriptome sequencing of Bacillus licheniformis DW2.

As an industrial bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis DW2 produces bacitracin which is an important antibiotic for many pathogenic microorganisms. Our previous study showed AbrB-knockout could significantly increase the production of bacitracin. Accordingly, it was meaningful to understand its genome features, expression differences between wild and AbrB-knockout (?AbrB) strains, and the regulation of bacitracin biosynthesis. Here, we sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated its genome, and also sequenced the transcriptomes in three growth phases. The genome of DW2 contained a DNA molecule of 4,468,952 bp with 45.93% GC content and 4,717 protein coding genes. The transcriptome reads were mapped to the assembled…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of the wheat fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis reveals chromosomal variations and genome plasticity.

Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes the major wheat disease, tan spot. We set out to provide essential genomics-based resources in order to better understand the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important pathogen.Here, we present eight new Ptr isolate genomes, assembled and annotated; representing races 1, 2 and 5, and a new race. We report a high quality Ptr reference genome, sequenced by PacBio technology with Illumina paired-end data support and optical mapping. An estimated 98% of the genome coverage was mapped to 10 chromosomal groups, using a two-enzyme hybrid approach. The final reference genome was 40.9 Mb…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Heterologous expression guides identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster of chuangxinmycin, an indole alkaloid antibiotic.

The indole alkaloid antibiotic chuangxinmycin, from Actinobacteria Actinoplanes tsinanensis, containing a unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole scaffold, is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. The chuangxinmycin biosynthetic gene cluster was identified by in silico analysis of the genome sequence, then verified by heterologous expression. Systemic gene inactivation and intermediate identification determined the minimum set of genes for unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole formation and the concerted action of a radical S-adenosylmethionine protein plus an unknown protein for addition of the 3-methyl group. These findings set a solid foundation for comprehensively investigating the biosynthesis, optimizing yield, and generating new analogues of chuangxinmycin.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phenotypic diversification by enhanced genome restructuring after induction of multiple DNA double-strand breaks.

DNA double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome rearrangements are assumed to provide diverse raw genetic materials enabling accelerated adaptive evolution; however, it remains unclear about the consequences of massive simultaneous DSB formation in cells and their resulting phenotypic impact. Here, we establish an artificial genome-restructuring technology by conditionally introducing multiple genomic DSBs in vivo using a temperature-dependent endonuclease TaqI. Application in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana generates strains with phenotypes, including improved ethanol production from xylose at higher temperature and increased plant biomass, that are stably inherited to offspring after multiple passages. High-throughput genome resequencing revealed that these strains harbor diverse rearrangements, including copy…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Precise control of SCRaMbLE in synthetic haploid and diploid yeast.

Compatibility between host cells and heterologous pathways is a challenge for constructing organisms with high productivity or gain of function. Designer yeast cells incorporating the Synthetic Chromosome Rearrangement and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) system provide a platform for generating genotype diversity. Here we construct a genetic AND gate to enable precise control of the SCRaMbLE method to generate synthetic haploid and diploid yeast with desired phenotypes. The yield of carotenoids is increased to 1.5-fold by SCRaMbLEing haploid strains and we determine that the deletion of YEL013W is responsible for the increase. Based on the SCRaMbLEing in diploid strains, we…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide analysis of Mycoplasma bovirhinis GS01 reveals potential virulence factors and phylogenetic relationships.

Mycoplasma bovirhinis is a significant etiology in bovine pneumonia and mastitis, but our knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of M. bovirhinis is very limited. In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of M. bovirhinis strain GS01 isolated from the nasal swab of pneumonic calves in Gansu, China, and we found that its genome forms a 847,985 bp single circular chromosome with a GC content of 27.57% and with 707 protein-coding genes. The putative virulence determinants of M. bovirhinis were then analyzed. Results showed that three genomic islands and 16 putative virulence genes, including one adhesion gene enolase,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insect symbionts as valuable grist for the biotechnological mill: an alkaliphilic silkworm gut bacterium for efficient lactic acid production.

Insects constitute the most abundant and diverse animal class and act as hosts to an extraordinary variety of symbiotic microorganisms. These microbes living inside the insects play critical roles in host biology and are also valuable bioresources. Enterococcus mundtii EMB156, isolated from the larval gut (gut pH >10) of the model organism Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), efficiently produces lactic acid, an important metabolite for industrial production of bioplastic materials. E. mundtii EMB156 grows well under alkaline conditions and stably converts various carbon sources into lactic acid, offering advantages in downstream fermentative processes. High-yield lactic acid production can be achieved by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Clinical Staphylococcus argenteus develops to small colony variants to promote persistent infection.

Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel staphylococcal species (also considered as a part of Staphylococcus aureus complex) that is infrequently reported on, and clinical S. argenteus infections are largely unstudied. Here, we report a persistent and recurrent hip joint infection case in which a S. argenteus strain and its small colony variants (SCVs) strain were successively isolated. We present features of the two S. argenteus strains and case details of their pathogenicity, explore factors that induce S. argenteus SCVs formation in the course of anti-infection therapy, and reveal potential genetic mechanisms for S. argenteus SCVs formation. S. argenteus strains were identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of natural product compounds as quorum sensing inhibitors in Pseudomonas fluorescens P07 through virtual screening.

Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria, is the main microorganism causing spoilage of chilled raw milk and aquatic products. Quorum sensing (QS) widely exists in bacteria to monitor their population densities and regulate numerous physiological activities, such as the secretion of siderophores, swarming motility and biofilm formation. Thus, searching for quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) may be another promising way to control the deterioration of food caused by P. fluorescens. Here, we screened a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database to discover potential QSIs with lesser toxicity. The gene sequences of LuxI- and LuxR-type proteins of P. fluorescens P07 were obtained through…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Temperature responses of mutation rate and mutational spectrum in an Escherichia coli strain and the correlation with metabolic rate.

Temperature is a major determinant of spontaneous mutation, but the precise mode, and the underlying mechanisms, of the temperature influences remain less clear. Here we used a mutation accumulation approach combined with whole-genome sequencing to investigate the temperature dependence of spontaneous mutation in an Escherichia coli strain. Experiments were performed under aerobic conditions at 25, 28 and 37 °C, three temperatures that were non-stressful for the bacterium but caused significantly different bacterial growth rates.Mutation rate did not differ between 25 and 28 °C, but was higher at 37 °C. Detailed analyses of the molecular spectrum of mutations were performed; and a particularly interesting…

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