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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Resistome and a Novel blaNDM-1-Harboring Plasmid of an Acinetobacter haemolyticus Strain from a Children’s Hospital in Puebla, Mexico.

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolates have been frequently associated with hospital and community infections, with A. baumannii being the most common. Other Acinetobacter spp. not belonging to this complex also cause infections in hospital settings, and the incidence has increased over the past few years. Some species of the Acinetobacter genus possess a great diversity of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, such as efflux pumps, porins, and resistance genes that can be acquired and disseminated by mobilizable genetic elements. By means of whole-genome sequencing, we describe in the clinical Acinetobacter haemolyticus strain AN54 different mechanisms of resistance that involve blaOXA-265, blaNDM-1, aphA6, aac(6′)-Ig,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Plantibacter flavus, Curtobacterium herbarum, Paenibacillus taichungensis, and Rhizobium selenitireducens Endophytes Provide Host-Specific Growth Promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana, Basil, Lettuce, and Bok Choy Plants.

A collection of bacterial endophytes isolated from stem tissues of plants growing in soils highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons were screened for plant growth-promoting capabilities. Twenty-seven endophytic isolates significantly improved the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants in comparison to that of uninoculated control plants. The five most beneficial isolates, one strain each of Curtobacterium herbarum, Paenibacillus taichungensis, and Rhizobium selenitireducens and two strains of Plantibacter flavus were further examined for growth promotion in Arabidopsis, lettuce, basil, and bok choy plants. Host-specific plant growth promotion was observed when plants were inoculated with the five bacterial strains. P. flavus strain M251 increased…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Diversity of phytobeneficial traits revealed by whole-genome analysis of worldwide-isolated phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp.

Plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp. competitively colonize the rhizosphere and display plant-growth promotion and/or disease-suppression activities. Some strains within the P. fluorescens species complex produce phenazine derivatives, such as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. These antimicrobial compounds are broadly inhibitory to numerous soil-dwelling plant pathogens and play a role in the ecological competence of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. We assembled a collection encompassing 63 strains representative of the worldwide diversity of plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we report the sequencing of 58 complete genomes using PacBio RS II sequencing technology. Distributed among four subgroups within the P. fluorescens species complex, the diversity of our…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Nodule bacteria from the cultured legume Phaseolus dumosus (belonging to the Phaseolus vulgaris cross-inoculation group) with common tropici phenotypic characteristics and symbiovar but distinctive phylogenomic position and chromid.

Phaseolus dumosus is an endemic species from mountain tops in Mexico that was found in traditional agriculture areas in Veracruz, Mexico. P. dumosus plants were identified by ITS sequences and their nodules were collected from agricultural fields or from trap plant experiments in the laboratory. Bacteria from P. dumosus nodules were identified as belonging to the phaseoli-etli-leguminosarum (PEL) or to the tropici group by 16S rRNA gene sequences. We obtained complete closed genomes from two P. dumosus isolates CCGE531 and CCGE532 that were phylogenetically placed within the tropici group but with a distinctive phylogenomic position and low average nucleotide identity…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Carbohydrate catabolic capability of a Flavobacteriia bacterium isolated from hadal water.

Flavobacteriia are abundant in many marine environments including hadal waters, as demonstrated recently. However, it is unclear how this flavobacterial population adapts to hadal conditions. In this study, extensive comparative genomic analyses were performed for the flavobacterial strain Euzebyella marina RN62 isolated from the Mariana Trench hadal water in low abundance. The complete genome of RN62 possessed a considerable number of carbohydrate-active enzymes with a different composition. There was a predominance of GH family 13 proteins compared to closely related relatives, suggesting that RN62 has preserved a certain capacity for carbohydrate utilization and that the hadal ocean may hold an…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Global-level population genomics reveals differential effects of geography and phylogeny on horizontal gene transfer in soil bacteria.

Although microorganisms are known to dominate Earth’s biospheres and drive biogeochemical cycling, little is known about the geographic distributions of microbial populations or the environmental factors that pattern those distributions. We used a global-level hierarchical sampling scheme to comprehensively characterize the evolutionary relationships and distributional limitations of the nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts of the crop chickpea, generating 1,027 draft whole-genome sequences at the level of bacterial populations, including 14 high-quality PacBio genomes from a phylogenetically representative subset. We find that diverse Mesorhizobium taxa perform symbiosis with chickpea and have largely overlapping global distributions. However, sampled locations cluster based on the phylogenetic…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Development of Tigecycline Resistance in Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 147 via AcrAB Overproduction Mediated by Replacement of the ramA Promoter.

Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae 2297, isolated from a patient treated with tigecycline for pneumonia, developed tigecycline resistance, in contrast to carbapenem-resistant isolate 1215, which was collected four months prior to the 2297 isolate. Mechanisms underlying tigecycline resistance were elucidated for the clinical isolates.The tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth microdilution method, with or without phenylalanine-arginine ß-naphthylamide (PABN), and whole-genome sequencing was carried out by single-molecule real-time sequencing. The expression levels of the genes acrA, oqxA, ramA, rarA, and rpoB were determined by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR.Both isolates presented identical antibiograms, except for tigecycline, which showed an MIC of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A reference genome for pea provides insight into legume genome evolution.

We report the first annotated chromosome-level reference genome assembly for pea, Gregor Mendel’s original genetic model. Phylogenetics and paleogenomics show genomic rearrangements across legumes and suggest a major role for repetitive elements in pea genome evolution. Compared to other sequenced Leguminosae genomes, the pea genome shows intense gene dynamics, most likely associated with genome size expansion when the Fabeae diverged from its sister tribes. During Pisum evolution, translocation and transposition differentially occurred across lineages. This reference sequence will accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of agronomically important traits and support crop improvement.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification of plasmid encoded osmoregulatory genes from halophilic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of halophytes.

Bacterial plasmids carry genes that code for additional traits such as osmoregulation, CO2 fixation, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance, root nodulation and nitrogen fixation. The main objective of the current study was to identify plasmid-conferring osmoregulatory genes in bacteria isolated from rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils of halophytes (Salsola stocksii and Atriplex amnicola). More than 55% of halophilic bacteria from the rhizosphere and 70% from non-rhizospheric soils were able to grow at 3?M salt concentrations. All the strains showed optimum growth at 1.5-3.0?M NaCl. Bacterial strains from the Salsola rhizosphere showed maximum (31%) plasmid elimination during curing experiments as compared to…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A reference-grade wild soybean genome.

Efficient crop improvement depends on the application of accurate genetic information contained in diverse germplasm resources. Here we report a reference-grade genome of wild soybean accession W05, with a final assembled genome size of 1013.2?Mb and a contig N50 of 3.3?Mb. The analytical power of the W05 genome is demonstrated by several examples. First, we identify an inversion at the locus determining seed coat color during domestication. Second, a translocation event between chromosomes 11 and 13 of some genotypes is shown to interfere with the assignment of QTLs. Third, we find a region containing copy number variations of the Kunitz…

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