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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SiLiCO: A simulator of long read sequencing in PacBio and Oxford Nanopore

Long read sequencing platforms, which include the widely used Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) platform and the emerging Oxford Nanopore platform, aim to produce sequence fragments in excess of 15-20 kilobases, and have proved advantageous in the identification of structural variants and easing genome assembly. However, long read sequencing remains relatively expensive and error prone, and failed sequencing runs represent a significant problem for genomics core facilities. To quantitatively assess the underlying mechanics of sequencing failure, it is essential to have highly re-producible and controllable reference data sets to which sequencing results can be compared. Here, we present SiLiCO, the first in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chimeras link to tandem repeats and transposable elements in tetraploid hybrid fish

Abstract The formation of the allotetraploid hybrid lineage (4nAT) encompasses both distant hybridization and polyploidization processes. The allotetraploid offspring have two sets of sub-genomes inherited from both parental species and therefore it is important to explore its genetic structure. Herein, we construct a bacterial artificial chromosome library of allotetraploids, and then sequence and analyze the full-length sequences of 19 bacterial artificial chromosomes. Sixty-eight DNA chimeras are identified, which are divided into four models according to the distribution of the genomic DNA derived from the parents. Among the 68 genetic chimeras, 44 (64.71%) are linked to tandem repeats (TRs) and 23…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structure and dynamics underlying elementary ligand binding events in human pacemaking channels.

Although molecular recognition is crucial for cellular signaling, mechanistic studies have relied primarily on ensemble measures that average over and thereby obscure underlying steps. Single-molecule observations that resolve these steps are lacking due to diffraction-limited resolution of single fluorophores at relevant concentrations. Here, we combined zero-mode waveguides with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to directly observe binding at individual cyclic nucleotide-binding domains (CNBDs) from human pacemaker ion channels critical for heart and brain function. Our observations resolve the dynamics of multiple distinct steps underlying cyclic nucleotide regulation: a slow initial binding step that must select a ‘receptive’ conformation followed by…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The draft genome of the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia hispanica (Frey) Sancho & A. Crespo

Lasallia hispanica (Frey) Sancho & A. Crespo is one of three Lasallia species occurring in central-western Europe. It is an orophytic, photophilous Mediterranean endemic which is sympatric with the closely related, widely distributed, highly clonal sister taxon L. pustulata in the supra- and oro-Mediterranean belts. We sequenced the genome of L. hispanica from a multispore isolate. The total genome length is 41·2 Mb, including 8488 gene models. We present the annotation of a variety of genes that are involved in protein secretion, mating processes and secondary metabolism, and we report transposable elements. Additionally, we compared the genome of L. hispanica…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

An improved approach for reconstructing consensus repeats from short sequence reads

Repeat elements are important components of most eukaryotic genomes. Most existing tools for repeat analysis rely either on high quality reference genomes or existing repeat libraries. Thus, it is still challenging to do repeat analysis for species with highly repetitive or complex genomes which often do not have good reference genomes or annotated repeat libraries. Recently we developed a computational method called REPdenovo that constructs consensus repeat sequences directly from short sequence reads, which outperforms an existing tool called RepARK. One major issue with REPdenovo is that it doesn’t perform well for repeats with relatively high divergence rates or low…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Regulation of neuronal differentiation, function, and plasticity by alternative splicing.

Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide powerful means to expand the coding power of genomes. In nervous systems, alternative splicing has emerged as a fundamental mechanism not only for the diversification of protein isoforms but also for the spatiotemporal control of transcripts. Thus, alternative splicing programs play instructive roles in the development of neuronal cell type-specific properties, neuronal growth, self-recognition, synapse specification, and neuronal network function. Here we discuss the most recent genome-wide efforts on mapping RNA codes and RNA-binding proteins for neuronal alternative splicing regulation. We illustrate how alternative splicing shapes key steps of neuronal development, neuronal maturation, and synaptic properties. Finally,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

STRetch: detecting and discovering pathogenic short tandem repeat expansions.

Short tandem repeat (STR) expansions have been identified as the causal DNA mutation in dozens of Mendelian diseases. Most existing tools for detecting STR variation with short reads do so within the read length and so are unable to detect the majority of pathogenic expansions. Here we present STRetch, a new genome-wide method to scan for STR expansions at all loci across the human genome. We demonstrate the use of STRetch for detecting STR expansions using short-read whole-genome sequencing data at known pathogenic loci as well as novel STR loci. STRetch is open source software, available from github.com/Oshlack/STRetch .

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome analysis of Rhodococcus Sp. DSSKP-R-001: A highly effective ß-estradiol-degrading bacterium.

We screened bacteria that use E2 as its sole source of carbon and energy for growth and identified them as Rhodococcus, and we named them DSSKP-R-001. For a better understanding of the metabolic potential of the strain, whole genome sequencing of Rhodococcus DSSKP-R-001 and annotation of the functional genes were performed. The genomic sketches included a predicted protein-coding gene of approximately 5.4?Mbp with G?+?C content of 68.72% and 5180. The genome of Rhodococcus strain DSSKP-R-001 consists of three replicons: one chromosome and two plasmids of 5.2, 0.09, and 0.09, respectively. The results showed that there were ten steroid-degrading enzymes distributed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The ß-lactamase gene profile and a plasmid-carrying multiple heavy metal resistance genes of Enterobacter cloacae.

In this work, by high-throughput sequencing, antibiotic resistance genes, including class A (blaCTX-M, blaZ, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaKLUC, and blaSFO), class C (blaSHV, blaDHA, blaMIR, blaAZECL-29, and blaACT), and class D (blaOXA) ß-lactamase genes, were identified among the pooled genomic DNA from 212 clinical Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Six blaMIR-positive E. cloacae strains were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that these strains were not clonally related. The complete genome of the blaMIR-positive strain (Y546) consisted of both a chromosome (4.78?Mb) and a large plasmid pY546 (208.74?kb). The extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-9a) and AmpC (blaMIR) were encoded on the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-Genome and Expression Analyses of Bamboo Aquaporin Genes Reveal Their Functions Involved in Maintaining Diurnal Water Balance in Bamboo Shoots.

Water supply is essential for maintaining normal physiological function during the rapid growth of bamboo. Aquaporins (AQPs) play crucial roles in water transport for plant growth and development. Although 26 PeAQPs in bamboo have been reported, the aquaporin-led mechanism of maintaining diurnal water balance in bamboo shoots remains unclear. In this study, a total of 63 PeAQPs were identified, based on the updated genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), including 22 PePIPs, 20 PeTIPs, 17 PeNIPs, and 4 PeSIPs. All of the PeAQPs were differently expressed in 26 different tissues of moso bamboo, based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. The…

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