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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Linear peptides are the major products of a biosynthetic pathway that encodes for cyclic depsipeptides.

Three new dentigerumycin analogues are produced by Streptomyces sp. M41, a bacterium isolated from a South African termite, Macrotermes natalensis. The structures of the complex nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase (NRPS/PKS) hybrid compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Both cyclic and linear peptides are reported, and the genetic organization of the NRPS modules within the biosynthetic gene cluster accounts for the observed structural diversity.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome mining of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 for heterologous overproduction in Escherichia coli.

As a highly valued keto-carotenoid, astaxanthin is widely used in nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for biosynthetic astaxanthin and improved efficiency of astaxanthin biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native astaxanthin producers and heterologous hosts. However, microbial resources for astaxanthin are limited. In this study, we found that the a-Proteobacterium Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 could produce astaxanthin naturally. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway using a combined PacBio-Illumina approach. The putative astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 55669 was predicted. For further confirmation, a high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Integrating mass spectrometry and genomics for cyanobacterial metabolite discovery.

Filamentous marine cyanobacteria produce bioactive natural products with both potential therapeutic value and capacity to be harmful to human health. Genome sequencing has revealed that cyanobacteria have the capacity to produce many more secondary metabolites than have been characterized. The biosynthetic pathways that encode cyanobacterial natural products are mostly uncharacterized, and lack of cyanobacterial genetic tools has largely prevented their heterologous expression. Hence, a combination of cutting edge and traditional techniques has been required to elucidate their secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. Here, we review the discovery and refined biochemical understanding of the olefin synthase and fatty acid ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylating…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics, using PacBio technology.

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a producer of the methymycin/pikromycin family of macrolide antibiotics and a model host for natural product studies, obtained exclusively using PacBio sequencing technology. The 9.03-Mbp genome harbors 8,775 genes and 11 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. Copyright © 2016 He et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 from an Arctic deep-sea hydrothermal vent site.

Members of the genus Geobacillus have been isolated from a wide variety of habitats worldwide and are the subject for targeted enzyme utilization in various industrial applications. Here we report the isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic starch-degrading Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1. The strain 12AMOR1 was isolated from deep-sea hot sediment at the Jan Mayen hydrothermal Vent Site. Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 consists of a 3,410,035 bp circular chromosome and a 32,689 bp plasmid with a G?+?C content of 52 % and 47 %, respectively. The genome comprises 3323 protein-coding genes, 88 tRNA species and 10 rRNA operons. The isolate…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maeA mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4054 lacking the malic enzyme.

It has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in Streptomyces. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in P. luteoviolacea S4054. Using Tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in mannose-containing substrates was created. Full genome analyses revealed that the vio-biosynthetic gene cluster was not interrupted by the transposon; instead the insertion was located to the maeA gene…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics-inspired discovery of three antibacterial active metabolites, aurantinins B, C, and D from compost-associated Bacillus subtilis fmb60.

Fmb60 is a wild-type Bacillus subtilis isolated from compost with significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Two novel PKS clusters were recognized in the genome sequence of fmb60, and then three polyene antibiotics, aurantinins B, C, and D, 1-3, were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation from the fermentation of fmb60. The structures of aurantinins B-D were elucidated by LC-HRMS and NMR data analysis. Aurantinins C and D were identified as new antimicrobial compounds. The three aurantinins showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sporogenes. However, aurantinins B-D did not exhibit any cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 µg/mL) against LO2 and Caco2 cell…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The ‘gifted’ actinomycete Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii.

Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii strains C34T, C38, C58 and C79 were isolated from a soil sample collected from the Chaxa Lagoon, located in the Salar de Atacama in northern Chile. These streptomycetes produce a variety of new specialised metabolites with antibiotic, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Moreover, genome mining performed on two of these strains has revealed the presence of biosynthetic gene clusters with the potential to produce new specialised metabolites. This review focusses on this new clade of Streptomyces strains, summarises the literature and presents new information on strain C34T.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Synthetic biology, genome mining, and combinatorial biosynthesis of NRPS-derived antibiotics: a perspective.

Combinatorial biosynthesis of novel secondary metabolites derived from nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) has been in slow development for about a quarter of a century. Progress has been hampered by the complexity of the giant multimodular multienzymes. More recently, advances have been made on understanding the chemical and structural biology of these complex megaenzymes, and on learning the design rules for engineering functional hybrid enzymes. In this perspective, I address what has been learned about successful engineering of complex lipopeptides related to daptomycin, and discuss how synthetic biology and microbial genome mining can converge to broaden the scope and enhance the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Isolation and identification of an anthracimycin analogue from Nocardiopsis kunsanensis, a halophile from a saltern, by genomic mining strategy.

Modern medicine is unthinkable without antibiotics; yet, growing issues with microbial drug resistance require intensified search for new active compounds. Natural products generated by Actinobacteria have been a rich source of candidate antibiotics, for example anthracimycin that, so far, is only known to be produced by Streptomyces species. Based on sequence similarity with the respective biosynthetic cluster, we sifted through available microbial genome data with the goal to find alternative anthracimycin-producing organisms. In this work, we report about the prediction and experimental verification of the production of anthracimycin derivatives by Nocardiopsis kunsanensis, a non-Streptomyces actinobacterial microorganism. We discovered N. kunsanensis…

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