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Sunday, July 7, 2019

MethSMRT: an integrative database for DNA N6-methyladenine and N4-methylcytosine generated by single-molecular real-time sequencing

DNA methylation is an important type of epigenetic modifications, where 5- methylcytosine (5mC), 6-methyadenine (6mA) and 4-methylcytosine (4mC) are the most common types. Previous efforts have been largely focused on 5mC, providing invaluable insights into epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation. Recently developed single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides a unique opportunity to detect the less studied DNA 6mA and 4mC modifications at single-nucleotide resolution. With a rapidly increased amount of SMRT sequencing data generated, there is an emerging demand to systematically explore DNA 6mA and 4mC modifications from these data sets. MethSMRT is the first resource hosting DNA 6mA and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in Chania multitudinisentens RB-25(T) gen. nov., sp. nov.

DNA methylation, defined by the addition of a methyl group to adenine or cytosine bases in DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (MTases), is one of the most studied post-replicative DNA modification mechanism in bacteria (Roberts et al., 2003b). The three forms of nucleotide methylation identified to date are: N6-methyladenine(m6A), N4-methylcytosine (m4C), and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) (Gromova and Khoroshaev, 2003).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into Campylobacter jejuni virulence and population genetics

Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Listeria monocytogenes in stone fruits linked to a multistate outbreak: enumeration of cells and whole-genome sequencing.

In 2014, the identification of stone fruits contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes led to the subsequent identification of a multistate outbreak. Simultaneous detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were performed on 105 fruits, each weighing 127 to 145 g, collected from 7 contaminated lots. The results showed that 53.3% of the fruits yielded L. monocytogenes (lower limit of detection, 5 CFU/fruit), and the levels ranged from 5 to 2,850 CFU/fruit, with a geometric mean of 11.3 CFU/fruit (0.1 CFU/g of fruit). Two serotypes, IVb-v1 and 1/2b, were identified by a combination of PCR- and antiserum-based serotyping among isolates from fruits and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Cell cycle constraints and environmental control of local DNA hypomethylation in a-proteobacteria.

Heritable DNA methylation imprints are ubiquitous and underlie genetic variability from bacteria to humans. In microbial genomes, DNA methylation has been implicated in gene transcription, DNA replication and repair, nucleoid segregation, transposition and virulence of pathogenic strains. Despite the importance of local (hypo)methylation at specific loci, how and when these patterns are established during the cell cycle remains poorly characterized. Taking advantage of the small genomes and the synchronizability of a-proteobacteria, we discovered that conserved determinants of the cell cycle transcriptional circuitry establish specific hypomethylation patterns in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus. We used genome-wide methyl-N6-adenine (m6A-) analyses…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of a commensal bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis CBA7120, isolated from a Korean fecal sample.

Enterococcus faecalis, the type strain of the genus Enterococcus, is not only a commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract in vertebrates and invertebrates, but also causes serious disease as an opportunistic pathogen. To date, genome sequences have been published for over four hundred E. faecalis strains; however, pathogenicity of these microbes remains complicated. To increase our knowledge of E. faecalis virulence factors, we isolated strain CBA7120 from the feces of an 81-year-old female from the Republic of Korea and performed a comparative genomic analysis.The genome sequence of E. faecalis CBA7120 is 3,134,087 bp in length, with a G + C content of 37.35 mol%,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Use of single molecule sequencing for comparative genomics of an environmental and a clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile ribotype 078.

How the pathogen Clostridium difficile might survive, evolve and be transferred between reservoirs within the natural environment is poorly understood. Some ribotypes are found both in clinical and environmental settings. Whether these strains are distinct from each another and evolve in the specific environments is not established. The possession of a highly mobile genome has contributed to the genetic diversity and ongoing evolution of C. difficile. Interpretations of genetic diversity have been limited by fragmented assemblies resulting from short-read length sequencing approaches and by a limited understanding of epigenetic regulation of diversity. To address this, single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Meeting report: mobile genetic elements and genome plasticity 2018

The Mobile Genetic Elements and Genome Plasticity conference was hosted by Keystone Symposia in Santa Fe, NM USA, February 11–15, 2018. The organizers were Marlene Belfort, Evan Eichler, Henry Levin and Lynn Maquat. The goal of this conference was to bring together scientists from around the world to discuss the function of transposable elements and their impact on host species. Central themes of the meeting included recent innovations in genome analysis and the role of mobile DNA in disease and evolution. The conference included 200 scientists who participated in poster presentations, short talks selected from abstracts, and invited talks. A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SLPE1-3, a novel lactic acid bacterium causing postharvest decay of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis is a pathogenic bacterium causing postharvest decay of the cultivated mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, whose pathogenic mechanism is little known. Sequencing of its complete genome is a prerequisite for revealing the molecular mechanism of infection. In this research, the complete genome of SLPE1-3 was obtained using the Single Molecular Real Time (SMRT) sequencing strategy. The genome was analyzed both structurally and functionally. The complete genome of SLPE1-3 consists of a single, circular chromosome (2,522,493 bp; 34.91% GC content) without any plasmid. The results showed the feasibility and superiority of SMRT in bacterial complete-genome research. The genome of…

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