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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insight into metabolic versatility of an aromatic compounds-degrading Arthrobacter sp. YC-RL1.

The genus Arthrobacter is ubiquitously distributed in different natural environments. Many xenobiotic-degrading Arthrobacter strains have been isolated and described; however, few have been systematically characterized with regard to multiple interrelated metabolic pathways and the genes that encode them. In this study, the biodegradability of seven aromatic compounds by Arthrobacter sp. YC-RL1 was investigated. Strain YC-RL1 could efficiently degrade p-xylene (PX), naphthalene, phenanthrene, biphenyl, p-nitrophenol (PNP), and bisphenol A (BPA) under both separated and mixed conditions. Based on the detected metabolic intermediates, metabolic pathways of naphthalene, biphenyl, PNP, and BPA were proposed, which indicated that strain YC-RL1 harbors systematic metabolic pathways…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequence and metabolic analysis of a fluoranthene-degrading strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, showed excellent degradation ability toward diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many studies have been done to improve its degradation ability. However, the molecular mechanisms of PAHs degradation in DN1 strain are unclear. In this study, the whole genome of DN1 strain was sequenced and analyzed. Its genome contains 6,641,902 bp and encodes 6,684 putative open reading frames (ORFs), which has the largest genome in almost all the comparative Pseudomonas strains. Results of gene annotation showed that this strain harbored over 100 candidate genes involved in PAHs degradation, including those encoding 25 dioxygenases, four…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Functional genomic analysis of phthalate acid ester (PAE) catabolism genes in the versatile PAE-mineralising bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 2G.

Microbial degradation is considered the most promising method for removing phthalate acid esters (PAEs) from polluted environments; however, a comprehensive genomic understanding of the entire PAE catabolic process is still lacking. In this study, the repertoire of PAE catabolism genes in the metabolically versatile bacterium Rhodococcus sp. 2G was examined using genomic, metabolic, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 4930 coding genes were identified from the 5.6?Mb genome of the 2G strain, including 337 esterase/hydrolase genes and 48 transferase and decarboxylase genes that were involved in hydrolysing PAEs into phthalate acid (PA) and decarboxylating PA into benzoic acid (BA). One…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis associated with neonatal sepsis.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus capitis, are major causes of bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Recently, a distinct clone of S. capitis (designated S. capitis NRCS-A) has emerged as an important pathogen in NICUs internationally. Here, 122 S. capitis isolates from New Zealand (NZ) underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and these data were supplemented with publicly available S. capitis sequence reads. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses were performed, as were phenotypic assessments of antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and plasmid segregational stability on representative isolates. A distinct lineage of S. capitis was identified in NZ associated with neonates…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Phenazines in plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp.: biosynthesis, regulation, function and genomics.

Plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. are proficient biocontrol agents of soil-dwelling plant pathogens. Phenazines are redox-active molecules that display broad-spectrum antibiotic activity toward many fungal, bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens. Phenazine compounds also play a role in the persistence and survival of Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizosphere. This mini-review focuses on plant-beneficial phenazine-producing Pseudomonas spp. from the P. fluorescens species complex, which includes numerous well-known phenazine-producing strains of biocontrol interest. In this review the current knowledge on phenazine biosynthesis and regulation, the role played by phenazines in biocontrol and rhizosphere colonization, as well as exciting new advances in the genomics of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of consecutive Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a single patient.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, and thus it is required to investigate how it disseminate in hospitals and infect patients. We performed whole genome sequencing for 24 A. baumannii strains isolated successively from the blood of a single patient to evaluate whether repeated infections were due to re-infection or relapse infection and to investigate within-host evolution. The whole genome of the first strain, BL1, was sequenced de novo using the PacBio RSII system. BL2-BL24, were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq4000 and mapped to the genome sequences of BL1. We identified 42 single-nucleotide variations among the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

N6-methyladenine DNA modification in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola genome.

DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) modifications expand the information capacity of DNA and have long been known to exist in bacterial genomes. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola (Xoc) is the causative agent of bacterial leaf streak, an emerging and destructive disease in rice worldwide. However, the genome-wide distribution patterns and potential functions of 6mA in Xoc are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the levels and global distribution patterns of 6mA modification in genomic DNA of seven Xoc strains (BLS256, BLS279, CFBP2286, CFBP7331, CFBP7341, L8 and RS105). The 6mA modification was found to be widely distributed across the seven Xoc genomes, accounting…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of pathogenic and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus in commercial broiler chickens.

Macrococcus caseolyticus is generally considered to be a non-pathogenic bacterium that does not cause human or animal diseases. However, recently, a strain of M. caseolyticus (SDLY strain) that causes high mortality rates was isolated from commercial broiler chickens in China. The main pathological changes caused by SDLY included caseous exudation in cranial cavities, inflammatory infiltration, haemorrhages and multifocal necrosis in various organs. The whole genome of the SDLY strain was sequenced and was compared with that of the non-pathogenic JCSC5402 strain of M. caseolyticus. The results showed that the SDLY strain harboured a large quantity of mutations, antibiotic resistance genes and numerous…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Stress-induced formation of cell wall-deficient cells in filamentous actinomycetes.

The cell wall is a shape-defining structure that envelopes almost all bacteria and protects them from environmental stresses. Bacteria can be forced to grow without a cell wall under certain conditions that interfere with cell wall synthesis, but the relevance of these wall-less cells (known as L-forms) is unclear. Here, we show that several species of filamentous actinomycetes have a natural ability to generate wall-deficient cells in response to hyperosmotic stress, which we call S-cells. This wall-deficient state is transient, as S-cells are able to switch to the normal mycelial mode of growth. However, prolonged exposure of S-cells to hyperosmotic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Investigation of a cluster of Sphingomonas koreensis infections.

Plumbing systems are an infrequent but known reservoir for opportunistic microbial pathogens that can infect hospitalized patients. In 2016, a cluster of clinical sphingomonas infections prompted an investigation.We performed whole-genome DNA sequencing on clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Sphingomonas koreensis identified from 2006 through 2016 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. We cultured S. koreensis from the sinks in patient rooms and performed both whole-genome and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to identify a reservoir within the infrastructure of the hospital. These isolates were compared with clinical and environmental S. koreensis isolates obtained from other institutions.The investigation showed that two…

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