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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genomics reveals unique wood-decay strategies and fruiting body development in the Schizophyllaceae.

Agaricomycetes are fruiting body-forming fungi that produce some of the most efficient enzyme systems to degrade wood. Despite decades-long interest in their biology, the evolution and functional diversity of both wood-decay and fruiting body formation are incompletely known. We performed comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of wood-decay and fruiting body development in Auriculariopsis ampla and Schizophyllum commune (Schizophyllaceae), species with secondarily simplified morphologies, an enigmatic wood-decay strategy and weak pathogenicity to woody plants. The plant cell wall-degrading enzyme repertoires of Schizophyllaceae are transitional between those of white rot species and less efficient wood-degraders such as brown rot or mycorrhizal fungi.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome Analysis of Hypomyces perniciosus, the Causal Agent of Wet Bubble Disease of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

The mycoparasitic fungus Hypomyces perniciosus causes wet bubble disease of mushrooms, particularly Agaricus bisporus. The genome of a highly virulent strain of H. perniciosus HP10 was sequenced and compared to three other fungi from the order Hypocreales that cause disease on A. bisporus. H. perniciosus genome is ~44 Mb, encodes 10,077 genes and enriched with transposable elements up to 25.3%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that H. perniciosus is closely related to Cladobotryum protrusum and diverged from their common ancestor ~156.7 million years ago. H. perniciosus has few secreted proteins compared to C. protrusum and Trichoderma virens, but significantly expanded protein families…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome Sequencing of Cladobotryum protrusum Provides Insights into the Evolution and Pathogenic Mechanisms of the Cobweb Disease Pathogen on Cultivated Mushroom.

Cladobotryum protrusum is one of the mycoparasites that cause cobweb disease on cultivated edible mushrooms. However, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and pathogenesis of C. protrusum on mushrooms are largely unknown. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of C. protrusum using the single-molecule, real-time sequencing platform of PacBio and perform a comparative analysis with closely related fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. The C. protrusum genome, the first complete genome to be sequenced in the genus Cladobotryum, is 39.09 Mb long, with an N50 of 4.97 Mb, encoding 11,003 proteins. The phylogenomic analysis confirmed its inclusion in Hypocreaceae, with its…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution.

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The smut fungus Ustilago esculenta has a bipolar mating system with three idiomorphs larger than 500?kb.

Zizania latifolia Turcz., which is mainly distributed in Asia, has had a long cultivation history as a cereal and vegetable crop. On infection with the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta, Z. latifolia becomes an edible vegetable, water bamboo. Two main cultivars, with a green shell and red shell, are cultivated for commercial production in Taiwan. Previous studies indicated that cultivars of Z. latifolia may be related to the infected U. esculenta isolates. However, related research is limited. The infection process of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis is coupled with sexual development and under control of the mating type locus. Thus,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genome sequence of Auricularia heimuer (Basidiomycota, Fungi), the third most important cultivated mushroom worldwide.

Heimuer, Auricularia heimuer, is one of the most famous traditional Chinese foods and medicines, and it is the third most important cultivated mushroom worldwide. The aim of this study is to develop genomic resources for A. heimuer to furnish tools that can be used to study its secondary metabolite production capability, wood degradation ability and biosynthesis of polysaccharides. The genome was obtained from single spore mycelia of the strain Dai 13782 by using combined high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 4000 system with the PacBio RSII long-read sequencing platform. Functional annotation was accomplished by blasting protein sequences with different public available databases to…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Toxin and genome evolution in a Drosophila defensive symbiosis.

Defenses conferred by microbial symbionts play a vital role in the health and fitness of their animal hosts. An important outstanding question in the study of defensive symbiosis is what determines long term stability and effectiveness against diverse natural enemies. In this study, we combine genome and transcriptome sequencing, symbiont transfection and parasite protection experiments, and toxin activity assays to examine the evolution of the defensive symbiosis between Drosophila flies and their vertically transmitted Spiroplasma bacterial symbionts, focusing in particular on ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), symbiont-encoded toxins that have been implicated in protection against both parasitic wasps and nematodes. Although many…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Development of a Molecular Marker Linked to the A4 Locus and the Structure of HD Genes in Pleurotus eryngii

Allelic differences in A and B mating-type loci are a prerequisite for the progression of mating in the genus Pleurotus eryngii; thus, the crossing is hampered by this biological barrier in inbreeding. Molecular markers linked to mating types of P. eryngii KNR2312 were investigated with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA to enhance crossing efficiency. An A4-linked sequence was identified and used to find the adjacent genomic region with the entire motif of the A locus from a contig sequenced by PacBio. The sequence-characterized amplified region marker 7-2299 distinguished A4 mating-type monokaryons from KNR2312 and other strains. A BLAST search of flanked…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete genome of the antifungal bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain MS82

The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain MS82 isolated from the rhizosphere of a soybean plant is reported and analyzed in relation to its extensive antifungal activity. Broth media used for production of the antifungal extract from strain MS82 against the mushroom pathogen Trichoderma viride were optimized using the routine plate bioassays. Culture extract of strain 82 in the peptone-K2HPO4-MgSO4 medium (PKM; peptone 20 g/L, K2HPO4 1.5 g/L, MgSO4 1.5 g/L and sterilized water) showed the best antifungal activity with an inhibition rate of 88.69thinspacetextpmthinspace3.87% to the fungal pathogen. Control efficacy of the T. viride contamination was investigated in mushroom production compost. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Development of CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing and beyond

The development of clustered regularly interspaced short-palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems for genome editing has transformed the way life science research is conducted and holds enormous potential for the treatment of disease as well as for many aspects of biotech- nology. Here, I provide a personal perspective on the development of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing within the broader context of the field and discuss our work to discover novel Cas effectors and develop them into additional molecular tools. The initial demonstra- tion of Cas9-mediated genome editing launched the development of many other technologies, enabled new lines of biological inquiry, and motivated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Modulation of metabolome and bacterial community in whole crop corn silage by inoculating homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri.

The present study investigated the species level based microbial community and metabolome in corn silage inoculated with or without homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum and heterofermentative Lactobacillus buchneri using the PacBio SMRT Sequencing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). Chopped whole crop corn was treated with (1) deionized water (control), (2) Lactobacillus plantarum, or (3) Lactobacillus buchneri. The chopped whole crop corn was ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags containing 300 g of fresh forge for 90 days, with three replicates for each treatment. The results showed that a total of 979 substances were detected, and 316 different metabolites were identified. Some metabolites with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome of lethal Lepiota venenata and insights into the evolution of toxin-biosynthetic genes.

Genomes of lethal Amanita and Galerina mushrooms have gradually become available in the past ten years; in contrast the other known amanitin-producing genus, Lepiota, is still vacant in this aspect. A fatal mushroom poisoning case in China has led to acquisition of fresh L. venenata fruiting bodies, based on which a draft genome was obtained through PacBio and Illumina sequencing platforms. Toxin-biosynthetic MSDIN family and Porlyl oligopeptidase B (POPB) genes were mined from the genome and used for phylogenetic and statistical studies to gain insights into the evolution of the biosynthetic pathway.The analysis of the genome data illustrated that only…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes involved in mycelium browning in Lentinula edodes.

Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushroom species in the world and contains useful medicinal components, such as lentinan. The light-induced formation of brown film on the vegetative mycelial tissues of L. edodes is an important process for ensuring the quantity and quality of this edible mushroom. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this critical developmental process in L. edodes, we characterized the morphological phenotypic changes in a strain, Chamaram, associated with abnormal brown film formation and compared its genome-wide transcriptional features.In the present study, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses of different vegetative mycelium growth phenotypes, namely,…

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