Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a synthetic antibiotic combination recommended for the treatment of complicated non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in humans. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is mediated by the acquisition of mobile genes, requiring both a dfr gene (trimethoprim resistance) and a sul gene (sulfamethoxazole resistance) for a clinical resistance phenotype (MIC =4/76?mg/L). In 2017, the CDC investigated a multistate outbreak caused by a Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg strain with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance, in which sul genes but no known dfr genes were detected.To characterize and describe the molecular mechanism of trimethoprim resistance in a Salmonella Heidelberg outbreak isolate.Illumina sequencing data for one outbreak isolate revealed a 588?bp ORF encoding a putative dfr gene. This gene was cloned into Escherichia coli and resistance to trimethoprim was measured by broth dilution and Etest. Phylogenetic analysis of previously reported dfrA genes was performed using MEGA. Long-read sequencing was conducted to determine the context of the novel dfr gene.The novel dfr gene, named dfrA34, conferred trimethoprim resistance (MIC =32?mg/L) when cloned into E. coli. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, dfrA34 shares less than 50% identity with other known dfrA genes. The dfrA34 gene is located in a class 1 integron in a multiresistance region of an IncC plasmid, adjacent to a sul gene, thus conferring clinical trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. Additionally, dfrA34 is associated with ISCR1, enabling easy transmission between other plasmids and bacterial strains.
Comparative genomics reveals structural and functional features specific to the genome of a foodborne Escherichia coli O157:H7.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) has been linked to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks. The ability to rapidly sequence and analyze genomes is important for understanding epidemiology, virulence, survival, and evolution of outbreak strains. In the current study, we performed comparative genomics to determine structural and functional features of the genome of a foodborne O157 isolate NADC 6564 and infer its evolutionary relationship to other O157 strains.The chromosome of NADC 6564 contained 5466?kb compared to reference strains Sakai (5498?kb) and EDL933 (5547?kb) and shared 41 of its 43 Linear Conserved Blocks (LCB) with the reference strains. However, 18 of 41 LCB had inverse orientation in NADC 6564 compared to the reference strains. NADC 6564 shared 18 of 19 bacteriophages with reference strains except that the chromosomal positioning of some of the phages differed among these strains. The additional phage (P19) of NADC 6564 was located on a 39-kb insertion element (IE) encoding several hypothetical proteins, an integrase, transposases, transcriptional regulators, an adhesin, and a phosphoethanolamine transferase (PEA). The complete homologs of the 39-kb?IE were found in E. coli PCN061 of porcine origin. The IE-encoded PEA showed low homology (32-33%) to four other PEA in NADC 6564 and PEA linked to mobilizable colistin resistance in E. coli but was highly homologous (95%) to a PEA of uropathogenic, avian pathogenic, and enteroaggregative E. coli. NADC 6564 showed slightly higher minimum inhibitory concentration of colistin compared to the reference strains. The 39-kb?IE also contained dndBCDE and dptFGH operons encoding DNA S-modification and a restriction pathway, linked to oxidative stress tolerance and self-defense against foreign DNA, respectively. Evolutionary tree analysis grouped NADC 6564 with lineage I O157 strains.These results indicated that differential phage counts and different chromosomal positioning of many bacteriophages and genomic islands might have resulted in recombination events causing altered chromosomal organization in NADC 6564. Evolutionary analysis grouped NADC 6564 with lineage I strains and suggested its earlier divergence from these strains. The ability to perform S-DNA modification might affect tolerance of NADC 6564 to various stressors.