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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome characterization of an extensively drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11A strain.

In this study, the whole genome sequences of two Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates from South Korea were determined and compared. They were found to be the same serotype (11?A) and multilocus sequence typing analysis showed that they are single-locus variants (SLVs; ST8279 and ST166) of each other, differing at one allele (aroE). However, the ST8279 strain is extensively drug-resistant (XDR) whereas the ST166 strain is not. The genome of the XDR strain is very similar in structure to that of two previously reported genomes, AP200 (11?A:ST62) and 70585 (5:ST5803); however, some regions were inverted and there were some exogenous regions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of vanM carrying clinical Enterococcus isolates and diversity of the suppressed vanM gene cluster.

Here we report the prevalence of the suppressed vanM gene cluster as a reservoir of vancomycin resistance genes. Among 1284 clinical isolates of enterococci from four hospitals in Hangzhou, China, 55 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and one isolate of Enterococcus faecalis were screened positive for the vanM genotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 55 of the 56 vanM-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Most of them (54/56) belonged to the main epidemic lineage CC17, mostly the ST78 type. The vanM gene clusters in the 55 vancomycin-susceptible isolates showed sequence diversity owing to different insertion locations of IS1216E. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

An African Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 sublineage with extensive drug-resistance and signatures of host adaptation.

Bloodstream infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium constitute a major health burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These invasive non-typhoidal (iNTS) infections are dominated by isolates of the antibiotic resistance-associated sequence type (ST) 313. Here, we report emergence of ST313 sublineage II.1 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Sublineage II.1 exhibits extensive drug resistance, involving a combination of multidrug resistance, extended spectrum ß-lactamase production and azithromycin resistance. ST313 lineage II.1 isolates harbour an IncHI2 plasmid we name pSTm-ST313-II.1, with one isolate also exhibiting decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Whole genome sequencing reveals that ST313 II.1 isolates have accumulated genetic signatures potentially associated with…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Mobilome of Brevibacterium aurantiacum Sheds Light on Its Genetic Diversity and Its Adaptation to Smear-Ripened Cheeses.

Brevibacterium aurantiacum is an actinobacterium that confers key organoleptic properties to washed-rind cheeses during the ripening process. Although this industrially relevant species has been gaining an increasing attention in the past years, its genome plasticity is still understudied due to the unavailability of complete genomic sequences. To add insights on the mobilome of this group, we sequenced the complete genomes of five dairy Brevibacterium strains and one non-dairy strain using PacBio RSII. We performed phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses, including comparisons with other publicly available Brevibacterium genomic sequences. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that these five dairy strains, previously identified as Brevibacterium…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A Phage-Like Plasmid Carrying blaKPC-2 Gene in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Background: Lateral gene transfer plays a central role in the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite their clinical significance, there is little information regarding the mobile genetic elements and mechanism of acquisition and propagation of lateral genes in P. aeruginosa, and they remain largely unknown. Objectives: The present study characterized the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strain BH9. Methods:Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 sequencing was performed using the long-read PacBio SMRT platform and the Ion Proton System. De novo assembly was carried out using the SMRT pipeline and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Blood Isolates Harboring a Novel Pseudo-staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Element.

The aim of this work was to assess a novel pseudo-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (?SCCmec) element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates. Community-associated MRSA E16SA093 and healthcare-associated MRSA F17SA003 isolates were recovered from the blood specimens of patients with S. aureus bacteremia in 2016 and in 2017, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined via the disk diffusion method, and SCCmec typing was conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Whole genome sequencing was carried out by single molecule real-time long-read sequencing. Both isolates belonged to sequence type 72 and agr-type I, and they were negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and toxic shock…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Gen2Epi: an automated whole-genome sequencing pipeline for linking full genomes to antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiological data in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Recent adva1nces in whole genome sequencing (WGS) based technologies have facilitated multi-step applications for predicting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and investigating the molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, generating full scaffolds of N. gonorrhoeae genomes from short reads, and the assignment of molecular epidemiological information (NG-MLST, NG-MAST, and NG-STAR) to multiple assembled samples, is challenging due to required manual tasks such as annotating antimicrobial resistance determinants with standard nomenclature for a large number of genomes.We present Gen2Epi, a pipeline that assembles short reads into full scaffolds and automatically assigns molecular epidemiological and AMR information to the assembled genomes. Gen2Epi is a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole-Genome Sequences of Five Acinetobacter baumannii Strains From a Child With Leukemia M2.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen and is one of the primary etiological agents of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). A. baumannii infections are difficult to treat due to the intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance of strains of this bacterium, which frequently limits therapeutic options. In this study, five A. baumannii strains (810CP, 433H, 434H, 483H, and A-2), all of which were isolated from a child with leukemia M2, were characterized through antibiotic susceptibility profiling, the detection of genes encoding carbapenem hydrolyzing oxacillinases, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), adherence and invasion assays toward the A549 cell line, and the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Characterization of an NDM-5 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST156 isolate from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China.

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains has posed a severe threat to public health in recent years. The mobile elements carrying the New Delhi metallo-ß-lactqtamase (NDM) gene have been regarded as the major mechanism leading to the rapid increase of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinics and animals.We describe an NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli strain, ECCRA-119 (sequence type 156 [ST156]), isolated from a poultry farm in Zhejiang, China. ECCRA-119 is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate that exhibited resistance to 27 antimicrobial compounds, including imipenem and meropenem, as detected by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The complete genome sequence of the ECCRA-119 isolate was…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative Genomic Analyses Reveal Core-Genome-Wide Genes Under Positive Selection and Major Regulatory Hubs in Outlier Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Genomic information for outlier strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exiguous when compared with classical strains. We sequenced and constructed the complete genome of an environmental strain CR1 of P. aeruginosa and performed the comparative genomic analysis. It clustered with the outlier group, hence we scaled up the analyses to understand the differences in environmental and clinical outlier strains. We identified eight new regions of genomic plasticity and a plasmid pCR1 with a VirB/D4 complex followed by trimeric auto-transporter that can induce virulence phenotype in the genome of strain CR1. Virulence genotype analysis revealed that strain CR1 lacked hemolytic phospholipase C…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome plasticity favours double chromosomal Tn4401b-blaKPC-2 transposon insertion in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 clone.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 235 is a clone that possesses an extraordinary ability to acquire mobile genetic elements and has been associated with the spread of resistance genes, including genes that encode for carbapenemases. Here, we aim to characterize the genetic platforms involved in resistance dissemination in blaKPC-2-positive P. aeruginosa ST235 in Colombia.In a prospective surveillance study of infections in adult patients attended in five ICUs in five distant cities in Colombia, 58 isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered, of which, 27 (46.6%) were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular analysis showed that 6 (22.2%) and 4 (14.8%) isolates harboured the…

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