April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of GD1108, a Moderate-Virulence Strain of Human-Associated ST398 Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Staphylococcus aureus multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398) is responsible for an increasing number of severe infections in humans. There are no reports detailing if all ST398 strains are equally virulent. We present the genome sequence of the moderate-virulence ST398 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strain GD1108, determined in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, to reveal the ST398 sublineage virulence.Copyright © 2019 McClure et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of GD1696, a Low-Virulence Strain of Human-Associated ST398 Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

The emerging livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398) appears to have augmented virulence in humans. However, it is unclear if all ST398 strains are equally virulent. Here, we present the chromosomal sequence of a low-virulence ST398 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, GD1696, to investigate ST398 sublineage virulence.Copyright © 2019 McClure et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Complete Genome Sequence of GD487, a High-Virulence Strain of Human-Associated ST398 Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398) methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) has been shown to have augmented pathogenicity in humans. However, it has not been determined whether all ST398 strains are equally virulent. We present here the genome sequence of a high-virulence ST398 MSSA strain, GD487, to explore potential insights into ST398 virulence.Copyright © 2019 McClure et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Advantage of the F2:A1:B- IncF Pandemic Plasmid over IncC Plasmids in In Vitro Acquisition and Evolution of blaCTX-M Gene-Bearing Plasmids in Escherichia coli.

Despite a fitness cost imposed on bacterial hosts, large conjugative plasmids play a key role in the diffusion of resistance determinants, such as CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamases. Among the large conjugative plasmids, IncF plasmids are the most predominant group, and an F2:A1:B- IncF-type plasmid encoding a CTX-M-15 variant was recently described as being strongly associated with the emerging worldwide Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25b:H4 H30Rx/C2 sublineage. In this context, we investigated the fitness cost of narrow-range F-type plasmids, including the F2:A1:B- IncF-type CTX-M-15 plasmid, and of broad-range C-type plasmids in the K-12-like J53-2 E. coli strain. Although all plasmids imposed a significant fitness cost to the bacterial host immediately after conjugation, we show, using an experimental-evolution approach, that a negative impact on the fitness of the host strain was maintained throughout 1,120 generations with the IncC-IncR plasmid, regardless of the presence or absence of cefotaxime, in contrast to the F2:A1:B- IncF plasmid, whose cost was alleviated. Many chromosomal and plasmid rearrangements were detected after conjugation in transconjugants carrying the IncC plasmids but not in transconjugants carrying the F2:A1:B- IncF plasmid, except for insertion sequence (IS) mobilization from the fliM gene leading to the restoration of motility of the recipient strains. Only a few mutations occurred on the chromosome of each transconjugant throughout the experimental-evolution assay. Our findings indicate that the F2:A1:B- IncF CTX-M-15 plasmid is well adapted to the E. coli strain studied, contrary to the IncC-IncR CTX-M-15 plasmid, and that such plasmid-host adaptation could participate in the evolutionary success of the CTX-M-15-producing pandemic E. coli ST131-O25b:H4 lineage.Copyright © 2019 Mahérault et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Detection of VIM-1-Producing Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella enterica Serovars Infantis and Goldcoast at a Breeding Pig Farm in Germany in 2017 and Their Molecular Relationship to Former VIM-1-Producing S. Infantis Isolates in German Livestock Production.

In 2011, VIM-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Escherichia coli were isolated for the first time in four German livestock farms. In 2015/2016, highly related isolates were identified in German pig production. This raised the issue of potential reservoirs for these isolates, the relation of their mobile genetic elements, and potential links between the different affected farms/facilities. In a piglet-producing farm suspicious for being linked to some blaVIM-1 findings in Germany, fecal and environmental samples were examined for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. Newly discovered isolates were subjected to Illumina whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybridization experiments. WGS data of these isolates were compared with those for the previously isolated VIM-1-producing Salmonella Infantis isolates from pigs and poultry. Among 103 samples, one Salmonella Goldcoast isolate, one Salmonella Infantis isolate, and one Enterobacter cloacae isolate carrying the blaVIM-1 gene were detected. Comparative WGS analysis revealed that the blaVIM-1 gene was part of a particular Tn21-like transposable element in all isolates. It was located on IncHI2 (ST1) plasmids of ~290 to 300?kb with a backbone highly similar (98 to 100%) to that of reference pSE15-SA01028. SNP analysis revealed a close relationship of all VIM-1-positive S Infantis isolates described since 2011. The findings of this study demonstrate that the occurrence of the blaVIM-1 gene in German livestock is restricted neither to a certain bacterial species nor to a certain Salmonella serovar but is linked to a particular Tn21-like transposable element located on transferable pSE15-SA01028-like IncHI2 (ST1) plasmids, being present in all of the investigated isolates from 2011 to 2017.IMPORTANCE Carbapenems are considered one of few remaining treatment options against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in human clinical settings. The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in livestock and food is a major public health concern. Particularly the occurrence of VIM-1-producing Salmonella Infantis in livestock farms is worrisome, as this zoonotic pathogen is one of the main causes for human salmonellosis in Europe. Investigations on the epidemiology of those carbapenemase-producing isolates and associated mobile genetic elements through an in-depth molecular characterization are indispensable to understand the transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae along the food chain and between different populations to develop strategies to prevent their further spread.Copyright © 2019 Roschanski et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Capacity to utilize raffinose dictates pneumococcal disease phenotype.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx, but it also causes serious and invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, as well as less serious but highly prevalent infections such as otitis media. We have previously shown that closely related pneumococci (of the same capsular serotype and multilocus sequence type [ST]) can display distinct pathogenic profiles in mice that correlate with clinical isolation site (e.g., blood versus ear), suggesting stable niche adaptation within a clonal lineage. This has provided an opportunity to identify determinants of disease tropism. Genomic analysis identified 17 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertions/deletions in protein coding sequences between blood and ear isolates of serotype 14 ST15 and serotype 3 ST180, respectively. SNPs in raffinose uptake and utilization genes (rafR or rafK) were detected in both serotypes/lineages. Ear isolates were consistently defective in growth in media containing raffinose as the sole carbon source, as well as in expression of raffinose pathway genes aga, rafG, and rafK, relative to their serotype/ST-matched blood isolates. Similar differences were also seen between serotype 23F ST81 blood and ear isolates. Analysis of rafR allelic exchange mutants of the serotype 14 ST15 blood and ear isolates demonstrated that the SNP in rafR was entirely responsible for their distinct in vitro phenotypes and was also the determinant of differential tropism for the lungs versus ear and brain in a mouse intranasal challenge model. These data suggest that the ability of pneumococci to utilize raffinose determines the nature of disease.IMPORTANCES. pneumoniae is a component of the commensal nasopharyngeal microflora of humans, but from this reservoir, it can progress to localized or invasive disease with a frequency that translates into massive global morbidity and mortality. However, the factors that govern the switch from commensal to pathogen, as well as those that determine disease tropism, are poorly understood. Here we show that capacity to utilize raffinose can determine the nature of the disease caused by a given pneumococcal strain. Moreover, our findings provide an interesting example of convergent evolution, whereby pneumococci belonging to two unrelated serotypes/lineages exhibit SNPs in separate genes affecting raffinose uptake and utilization that correlate with distinct pathogenic profiles in vivo This further underscores the critical role of differential carbohydrate metabolism in the pathogenesis of localized versus invasive pneumococcal disease. Copyright © 2019 Minhas et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole genome sequencing of NDM-1-producing serotype K1 ST23 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae in China.

The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) is causing worldwide concern, whereas NDM-producing hvKP is still rare. Here we report the complete genome sequence characteristics of an NDM-1-producing ST23 type clinical hvKP in PR China.Capsular polysaccharide serotyping was performed by PCR. The complete genome sequence of isolate 3214 was obtained using both the Illumina Hiseq platform and Pacbio RS platform. Multilocus sequence type was identified by submitting the genome sequence to mlst 2.0 and the antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmid replicons were identified using ResFinder and PlasmidFinder, respectively. Transferability of the blaNDM-1-bearing plasmid was determined by conjugation experiment, S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization.Isolate 3214 was classified to ST23 and belonged to the K1 capsular serotype. The isolate’s total genome size was 6 171 644?bp with a G+C content of 56.39 %, consisting of a 5 448 209?bp chromosome and seven plasmids. The resistome included 18 types of antibiotic resistance genes. Fourteen resistance genes including blaNDM-1 and blaCTX-M-14 were located on plasmids and five also including blaCTX-M-14 were in the chromosome. Plasmid pNDM_3214 carrying blaNDM-1 harboured six types of resistance genes surrounded by insertion sequences and was conjugative. The worldwide pLVPK-like virulence plasmid harbouring rmpA2 and rmpA was also found in this isolate.This study provides basic information of phenotypic and genomic features of ST23 CR-hvKP isolate 3214. Our data highlights the potential risk of spread of NDM-1-producing ST23 hvKP.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.