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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomics of Corynebacterium striatum, an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen of immunocompromised patients.

Corynebacterium striatum is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen of immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. The objective of these studies was to provide a detailed genomic analysis of disease-causing C. striatum and determine the genomic drivers of resistance and resistance-gene transmission.A multi-institutional and prospective pathogen genomics programme flagged seven MDR C. striatum infections occurring close in time, and specifically in immunocompromised patients with underlying respiratory diseases. Whole genome sequencing was used to identify clonal relationships among strains, genetic causes of antimicrobial resistance, and their mobilization capacity. Matrix-assisted linear desorption/ionization-time-of-flight analyses of sequenced isolates provided curated content to improve rapid clinical identification in subsequent…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long-term colonization dynamics of Enterococcus faecalis in implanted devices in research macaques.

Enterococcus faecalis is a common opportunistic pathogen that colonizes cephalic recording chambers (CRCs) of macaques used in cognitive neuroscience research. We previously characterized 15 E. faecalis strains isolated from macaques at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2011. The goal of this study was to examine how a 2014 protocol change prohibiting the use of antimicrobials within CRCs affected colonizing E. faecalis strains. We collected 20 E. faecalis isolates from 10 macaques between 2013 and 2017 for comparison to 4 isolates previously characterized in 2011 with respect to the sequence type (ST) distribution, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and changes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative analysis of blaKPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae CG258 strains disseminated among multiple Chinese hospitals.

We recently reported the complete sequence of a blaKPC-2- and rmtB-carrying IncFII-family plasmid p675920-1 with the pKPC-LK30/pHN7A8 hybrid structure. Comparative genomics of additional sequenced plasmids with similar hybrid structures and their prevalence in blaKPC-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from China were investigated in this follow-up study.A total of 51 blaKPC-carrying K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 2012 to 2016 from five Chinese hospitals and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. The blaKPC-carrying plasmids from four representative strains were sequenced and compared with p675920-1 and pCT-KPC. Plasmid transfer, carbapenemase activity determination, and bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed to characterize resistance phenotypes mediated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

pYR4 from a Norwegian isolate of Yersinia ruckeri is a putative virulence plasmid encoding both a type IV pilus and a type IV secretion system

Enteric redmouth disease caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a significant problem for fish farming around the world. Despite its importance, only a few virulence factors of Y. ruckeri have been identified and studied in detail. Here, we report and analyze the complete DNA sequence of pYR4, a plasmid from a highly pathogenic Norwegian Y. ruckeri isolate, sequenced using PacBio SMRT technology. Like the well-known pYV plasmid of human pathogenic Yersiniae, pYR4 is a member of the IncFII family. Thirty-one percent of the pYR4 sequence is unique compared to other Y. ruckeri plasmids. The unique regions contain, among others…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Detection of mcr-1 plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from human specimens: Comparison with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock in Korea.

The emerging mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, is an ongoing worldwide concern and an evaluation of clinical isolates harboring this gene is required in Korea. We investigated mcr-1-possessing Enterobacteriaceae among Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in Korea, and compared the genetic details of the plasmids with those in Escherichia coli isolates from livestock.Among 9,396 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2015, 1,347 (14.3%) strains were resistant to colistin and those were screened for mcr-1 by PCR. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by microdilution, and conjugal transfer of the mcr-1-harboring plasmids was assessed by direct mating. Whole genomes of three…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica in retail poultry meat and swine feces in parts of China

Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogen transmitted by contaminated food. In this study, a total of 500 retail poultry meat samples from 4 provinces and 145 swine feces samples from 12 provinces in China was tested for Y. enterocolitica and 26 isolates were obtained for further bio-serotyping, testing with antimicrobial susceptibility testing to a panel of antimicrobial compounds, and genetically characterization based on the whole genome sequencing. Higher prevalence (4.8%) of Y. enterocolitica contamination in retail poultry meat than that in swine feces (2.76%) was observed. No difference in bio-serotypes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence genes distribution between swine and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Molecular epidemiology of isolates with multiple mcr plasmids from a pig farm in Great Britain: the effects of colistin withdrawal in the short and long term.

The environment, including farms, might act as a reservoir for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes, which has led to calls for reduction of usage in livestock of colistin, an antibiotic of last resort for humans.To establish the molecular epidemiology of mcr Enterobacteriaceae from faeces of two cohorts of pigs, where one group had initially been treated with colistin and the other not, over a 5?month period following stoppage of colistin usage on a farm in Great Britain; faecal samples were also taken at ~20?months.mcr-1 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from positive faeces and was WGS performed; conjugation was performed on selected Escherichia…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of blaIMP-6-positive Metakosakonia sp. MRY16-398 isolate from the ascites of a diverticulitis patient.

A novel species of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was isolated from a patient diagnosed with sigmoid colon diverticulitis. At first, laboratory testing suggested it was Klebsiella oxytoca or Pantoea sp.; however, a complete genome sequence of the isolate, MRY16-398, revealed that it could be novel species, most similar to [Kluyvera] intestini, of which taxonomic nomenclature is still under discussion. Orthologous conserved gene analysis among 42 related bacterial strains indicated that MRY16-398 was classified as the newly proposed genus Metakosakonia. Further, MRY16-398 was found to harbor the blaIMP-6 gene-positive class 1 integron (In722) in plasmid pMRY16-398_2 (IncN replicon, 47.4 kb in size).…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence of pathogenic and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Macrococcus caseolyticus in commercial broiler chickens.

Macrococcus caseolyticus is generally considered to be a non-pathogenic bacterium that does not cause human or animal diseases. However, recently, a strain of M. caseolyticus (SDLY strain) that causes high mortality rates was isolated from commercial broiler chickens in China. The main pathological changes caused by SDLY included caseous exudation in cranial cavities, inflammatory infiltration, haemorrhages and multifocal necrosis in various organs. The whole genome of the SDLY strain was sequenced and was compared with that of the non-pathogenic JCSC5402 strain of M. caseolyticus. The results showed that the SDLY strain harboured a large quantity of mutations, antibiotic resistance genes and numerous…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome wide characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serogroup O6 isolates from multiple outbreaks and sporadic infections from 1975-2016.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrhea globally, particularly among children under the age of five in developing countries. ETEC O6 is the most common ETEC serogroup, yet the genome wide population structure of isolates of this serogroup is yet to be determined. In this study, we have characterized 40 ETEC O6 isolates collected between 1975-2016 by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing. To determine the relatedness of isolates, we evaluated two methods-whole genome high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (whole genome-hqSNP) and core genome SNP analyses using Lyve-SET and Parsnp respectively. All isolates were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional landscape of a blaKPC-2 plasmid and response to imipenem exposure in Escherichia coli TOP10.

The diffusion of KPC-2 carbapenemase is closely related to the spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae of the clonal-group 258 and linked to IncFIIK plasmids. Little is known about the biology of multi-drug resistant plasmids and the reasons of their successful dissemination. Using E. coli TOP10 strain harboring a multi-replicon IncFIIK-IncFIB blaKPC-2-gene carrying plasmid pBIC1a from K. pneumoniae ST-258 clinical isolate BIC-1, we aimed to identify basal gene expression and the effects of imipenem exposure using whole transcriptome approach by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Independently of the antibiotic pressure, most of the plasmid-backbone genes were expressed at low levels. The most expressed pBIC1a…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Characterization of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from cephalic recording chambers in research macaques (Macaca spp.).

Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST): ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Decreased fitness and virulence in ST10 Escherichia coli harboring blaNDM-5 and mcr-1 against a ST4981 strain with blaNDM-5.

Although coexistence of blaNDM-5 and mcr-1 in Escherichia coli has been reported, little is known about the fitness and virulence of such strains. Three carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (GZ1, GZ2, and GZ3) successively isolated from one patient in 2015 were investigated for microbiological fitness and virulence. GZ1 and GZ2 were also resistant to colistin. To verify the association between plasmids and fitness, growth kinetics of the transconjugants were performed. We also analyzed genomic sequences of GZ2 and GZ3 using PacBio sequencing. GZ1 and GZ2 (ST10) co-harbored blaNDM-5 and mcr-1, while GZ3 (ST4981) carried only blaNDM-5. GZ3 demonstrated significantly more rapid growth…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing reveals the molecular basis of multidrug-resistance in ST772 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-associated infection, but there is growing awareness of the emergence of multidrug-resistant lineages in community settings around the world. One such lineage is ST772-MRSA-V, which has disseminated globally and is increasingly prevalent in India. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of DAR4145, a strain of the ST772-MRSA-V lineage from India, and investigate its genomic characteristics in regards to antibiotic resistance and virulence factors.Sequencing using single-molecule real-time technology resulted in the assembly of a single continuous chromosomal sequence, which was error-corrected, annotated and compared to nine draft genome assemblies of ST772-MRSA-V…

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