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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Tn2008-driven carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a period of increased incidence of infections in a Southwest Virginia hospital (USA).

The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients affected by a sudden increase in the incidence of infections by such organisms in a tertiary care hospital in Virginia, USA, in 2009-2010 and (ii) to examine whether such strains are commonly encountered in the hospital setting.The whole genomes of one outbreak strain as well as one carbapenem-resistant and one carbapenem-sensitive strain from sporadic infections in 2010-2012 were sequenced and analysed. Then, 5 outbreak isolates and 57 sporadic isolates (of which 39 were carbapenem-resistant) were screened…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The global distribution and spread of the mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1.

Colistin represents one of the few available drugs for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the recent plasmid-mediated spread of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 poses a significant public health threat, requiring global monitoring and surveillance. Here, we characterize the global distribution of mcr-1 using a data set of 457 mcr-1-positive sequenced isolates. We find mcr-1 in various plasmid types but identify an immediate background common to all mcr-1 sequences. Our analyses establish that all mcr-1 elements in circulation descend from the same initial mobilization of mcr-1 by an ISApl1 transposon in the mid 2000s (2002-2008; 95% highest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Shigella flexneriisolated from macaques.

Non-human primates (NHPs) for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing confirmed resistance or decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. S. flexneri isolates were susceptible to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of two novel bacteriophages infecting multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a challenging nosocomial pathogen due to its rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. We report characterization of two novel bacteriophages, PBAB08 and PBAB25, infecting clinically isolated, multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains. Both phages belonged to Myoviridae of Caudovirales as their morphology observed under an electron microscope. Their genomes were double stranded linear DNAs of 42,312 base pairs and 40,260 base pairs, respectively. The two phages were distinct from known Acinetobacter phages when whole genome sequences were compared. PBAB08 showed a 99% similarity with 57% sequence coverage to phage AB1 and PBAB25 showed a 97% similarity with…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic relationships among multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains from humans and animals.

We identified 20 to 22 resistance genes, carried in four incompatibility groups of plasmids, in each of five genetically closely related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains recovered from humans, pigs, and chickens. The genes conferred resistance to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cefoxitin, and azithromycin. This study demonstrates the transmission of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains among humans and food animals and may be the first identification of mphA in azithromycin-resistant Salmonella strains in Taiwan. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to phage PaP1 predation via O-antigen polymerase mutation.

Adaptation of bacteria to phage predation poses a major obstacle for phage therapy. Bacteria adopt multiple mechanisms, such as inhibition of phage adsorption and CRISPR/Cas systems, to resist phage infection. Here, a phage-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1 under the infection of lytic phage PaP1 was selected for further study. The PaP1-resistant variant, termed PA1RG, showed decreased adsorption to PaP1 and was devoid of long chain O-antigen on its cell envelope. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis revealed a single nucleotide mutation in the gene PA1S_08510, which encodes the O-antigen polymerase Wzy that is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance

We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in M. tuberculosis with rifampicin or isoniazid resistance. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and microarray technology were performed to expound DNA methylation profiles and differentially expressed genes in rifampicin or isoniazid resis- tant M. tuberculosis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway analysis and meth- ylated regulatory network analysis were conducted by online forecasting databases. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptome revealed that 335 differentially methylated genes (175 hypermethylated and 160 hypomethylated) and 132 significant differentially expressed genes (68 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) were found to be regulated by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Stendomycin and pantomycin are identical natural products: Preparation of a functionalized bioactive analogue.

The natural products pantomycin and stendomycin were both reported as antimicrobial agents. We demonstrate by gene cluster analysis, LC-MS analysis, and isolation that these polypeptides are identical, and we identify previously unknown congeners. We show that stendomycin can be chemically modified at its electrophilic dehydrobutyrine moiety yielding the first bioactive analogue of this natural product which can undergo additional functionalization. This compound may be a valuable starting point for molecular probe development, and we invite its distribution to the scientific community.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Heterogeneous and flexible transmission of mcr-1 in hospital-associated Escherichia coli.

The recent emergence of a transferable colistin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, has gained global attention because of its threat to clinical treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the possible transmission route of mcr-1 among Enterobacteriaceae species in clinical settings is largely unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic analysis of Escherichia coli isolates collected in a hospital in Hangzhou, China. We found that mcr-1-carrying isolates from clinical infections and feces of inpatients and healthy volunteers were genetically diverse and were not closely related phylogenetically, suggesting that clonal expansion is not involved in the spread of mcr-1 The mcr-1…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparing two Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes from Chinese immigrants with native genomes using mauve alignments.

The number of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) increases each year in South Korea. Determining the transmission dynamics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cluster the strains has been challenging.WGS, annotation refinement, and orthology assignment for the GenBank accession number acquisition were performed on two clinical isolates from Chinese immigrants. In addition, the genomes of the two isolates were compared with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from two native Korean and five native Chinese individuals using a phylogenetic topology tree based on the Multiple Alignment of Conserved Genomic Sequence with Rearrangements (Mauve) package.The newly assigned accession numbers for two…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, KAB03 belonging to ST451 from Korea.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains have emerged rapidly worldwide. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of XDR A. baumannii strains show regional differences; therefore, it is necessary to analyze both genomic and proteomic characteristics of emerging XDR A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in Korea to elucidate their multidrug resistance. Here, we isolated new sequence type of XDR A. baumannii clinical strain (KAB03) from Korean hospitals and performed comprehensive genome analyses. The strain belongs to new sequence type, ST451. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis with other types of A. baumannii strains revealed that KAB03 has unique SNP pattern in the regions of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of Escherichia coli sequence type 219 clones from the same patient: Evolution of the IncI1 blaCMY-carrying plasmid in vivo.

This study investigates the evolution of an Escherichia coli sequence type 219 clone in a patient with recurrent urinary tract infection, comparing isolate EC974 obtained prior to antibiotic treatment and isolate EC1515 recovered after exposure to several ß-lactam antibiotics (ceftriaxone, cefixime, and imipenem). EC974 had a smooth colony morphology, while EC1515 had a rough colony morphology on sheep blood agar. RAPD-PCR analysis suggested that both isolates belonged to the same clone. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that EC1515 was more resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, cefpirome, and ertapenem than EC974. Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the genetic changes of EC974…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sequencing of pT5282-CTXM, p13190-KPC and p30860-NR, and comparative genomics analysis of IncX8 plasmids.

This study proposes a replicon-based scheme for typing IncX plasmids into nine separately clustering subgroups, including IncX1a, IncX1ß and IncX2-8. The complete nucleotide sequences of three IncX8 plasmids, namely pT5282-CTXM and p30860-NR from Enterobacter cloacae and p13190-KPC from Klebsiella pneumoniae, were determined and were compared with two other previously sequenced IncX8 plasmids (pCAV1043-58 and pCAV1741-16). These five plasmids possessed conserved IncX8 backbones with limited genetic variation with respect to gene content and organisation, and each of them carried one or three accessory modules that harboured resistance markers and metabolic gene clusters as well as transposons, insertion sequence (IS)-based transposition units…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Chromosomally encoded mcr-5 in colistin non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of historical Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates identified a chromosomal copy of mcr-5 within a Tn3-like transposon in P. aeruginosa MRSN 12280. The isolate was non-susceptible to colistin by broth microdilution and genome analysis revealed no mutations known to confer colistin resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mcr in colistin non-susceptible P. aeruginosa.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of multi-drug resistant, MCR-1 and ESBL-coproducing ST117 Escherichia coli from diseased chickens in Northeast China

An endemic multi-drug resistant ST117 E. coli isolate coproducing MCR-1 and 3 ESBL loci was, for the first time, detected from diseased chicken, Liaoning Province, in Northeast China, from 2011 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing revealed 5 unique plasmids, namely pHXH-1, pHXH-2, pHXH-3, pHXH-4 and pHXH-5). Among them, pHXH1 and pHXH4 encode ESBL, and pHXH-5 mediates MCR-1 colistin resistance. The results indicate that the potentially-national dissemination of MCR-1-positive pathogens with pan-drug resistance proceeds via food chains.

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