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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative mapping of the ASTRINGENCY locus controlling fruit astringency in hexaploid persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) with the diploid D. lotus reference genome

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a tree crop species that originated in East Asia, consists mainly of hexaploid individuals (2n = 6x = 90) with some nonaploid individuals. One of the unique characteristics of persimmon is the continuous accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in its fruit until the middle of fruit development, resulting in a strong astringent taste even at commercial fruit maturity. Among persimmon cultivars, pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) types cease PA accumulation in early fruit development and become non-astringent at commercial maturity. PCNA is an allelic trait to non-PCNA and is controlled by a single locus called the ASTRINGENCY (AST)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

LTR_retriever: A highly accurate and sensitive program for identification of long terminal repeat retrotransposons.

Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are prevalent in plant genomes. The identification of LTR-RTs is critical for achieving high-quality gene annotation. Based on the well-conserved structure, multiple programs were developed for the de novo identification of LTR-RTs; however, these programs are associated with low specificity and high false discovery rates. Here, we report LTR_retriever, a multithreading-empowered Perl program that identifies LTR-RTs and generates high-quality LTR libraries from genomic sequences. LTR_retriever demonstrated significant improvements by achieving high levels of sensitivity (91%), specificity (97%), accuracy (96%), and precision (90%) in rice (Oryza sativa). LTR_retriever is also compatible with long sequencing reads. With…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Induced salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass by a novel bacterium strain from the rhizosphere of a desert shrub Haloxylon ammodendron.

Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere ofH. ammodendronin Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China. In current work, the effects of M30-35 inoculation on salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass were evaluated and its genome was sequenced to identify genes associated with plant growth promotion. Results…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Assembly and analysis of a qingke reference genome demonstrate its close genetic relation to modern cultivated barley.

Qingke, the local name of hulless barley in the Tibetan Plateau, is a staple food for Tibetans. The availability of its reference genome sequences could be useful for studies on breeding and molecular evolution. Taking advantage of the third-generation sequencer (PacBio), we de novo assembled a 4.84-Gb genome sequence of qingke, cv. Zangqing320 and anchored a 4.59-Gb sequence to seven chromosomes. Of the 46,787 annotated ‘high-confidence’ genes, 31 564 were validated by RNA-sequencing data of 39 wild and cultivated barley genotypes with wide genetic diversity, and the results were also confirmed by nonredundant protein database from NCBI. As some gaps in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The hardy rubber tree genome provides insights into the evolution of polyisoprene biosynthesis.

Eucommia ulmoides, also called hardy rubber tree, is an economically important tree; however, the lack of its genome sequence restricts the fundamental biological research and applied studies of this plant species. Here, we present a high-quality assembly of its ~1.2-Gb genome (scaffold N50 = 1.88 Mb) with at least 26 723 predicted genes for E. ulmoides, the first sequenced genome of the order Garryales, which was obtained using an integrated strategy combining Illumina sequencing, PacBio sequencing, and BioNano mapping. As a sister taxon to lamiids and campanulids, E. ulmoides underwent an ancient genome triplication shared by core eudicots but no further whole-genome duplication in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gene presence-absence polymorphism in castrating anther-smut fungi: Recent gene Gains and Phylogeographic Structure.

Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M. silenes-dioicae (MvSd), from across Europe, on the basis of Illumina genome sequencing data and high-quality genome references. We observed presence-absence polymorphism for 186 autosomal genes (2%…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

DNA N6-adenine methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

DNA methylation on N6-adenine (6mA) has recently been found to be a potentially epigenetic mark in several unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. However, its distribution patterns and potential functions in land plants, which are primary producers for most ecosystems, remain largely unknown. Here we report global profiling of 6mA sites at single-nucleotide resolution in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana at different developmental stages using single-molecule real-time sequencing. 6mA sites are widely distributed across the Arabidopsis genome and enriched over the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions. 6mA occurs more frequently in gene bodies than intergenic regions. Analysis of 6mA methylomes and RNA sequencing data…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide analysis of the NAC transcription factor family and their expression during the development and ripening of the Fragaria × ananassa fruits.

NAC proteins are a family of transcription factors which have a variety of important regulatory roles in plants. They present a very well conserved group of NAC subdomains in the N-terminal region and a highly variable domain at the C-terminus. Currently, knowledge concerning NAC family in the strawberry plant remains very limited. In this work, we analyzed the NAC family of Fragaria vesca, and a total of 112 NAC proteins were identified after we curated the annotations from the version 4.0.a1 genome. They were placed into the ligation groups (pseudo-chromosomes) and described its physicochemical and genetic features. A microarray transcriptomic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A transposable element annotation pipeline and expression analysis reveal potentially active elements in the microalga Tisochrysis lutea.

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences known as drivers of genome evolution. Their impacts have been widely studied in animals, plants and insects, but little is known about them in microalgae. In a previous study, we compared the genetic polymorphisms between strains of the haptophyte microalga Tisochrysis lutea and suggested the involvement of active autonomous TEs in their genome evolution.To identify potentially autonomous TEs, we designed a pipeline named PiRATE (Pipeline to Retrieve and Annotate Transposable Elements, download: https://doi.org/10.17882/51795 ), and conducted an accurate TE annotation on a new genome assembly of T. lutea. PiRATE is composed of detection,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Nucleotide-binding resistance gene signatures in sugar beet, insights from a new reference genome.

Nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC), leucine-rich-repeat genes (NLRs) account for 60.8% of resistance (R) genes molecularly characterized from plants. NLRs exist as large gene families prone to tandem duplication and transposition, with high sequence diversity among crops and their wild relatives. This diversity can be a source of new disease resistance, but difficulty in distinguishing specific sequences from homologous gene family members hinders characterization of resistance for improving crop varieties. Current genome sequencing and assembly technologies, especially those using long-read sequencing, are improving resolution of repeat-rich genomic regions and clarifying locations of duplicated genes, such as NLRs. Using the conserved NB-ARC domain as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Enrichment of the antibiotic resistance gene tet(L) in an alkaline soil fertilized with plant derived organic manure.

Fifteen antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and intI1, a gene involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, were quantified in three different soil samples from a 22 year old field experiment that had received inorganic fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM; a mixture of wheat straw, soybean oil cake and cotton cake), and control fields that had received no fertilizer and manure (CK). Tet(L) was the most abundant ARG in OM, which also contained considerable levels of intI1. Molecular analysis of yearly collected archived soils over the past 22 years showed that tet(L) and intI1 were higher in OM soils than…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Amplification and adaptation of centromeric repeats in polyploid switchgrass species.

Centromeres in most higher eukaryotes are composed of long arrays of satellite repeats from a single satellite repeat family. Why centromeres are dominated by a single satellite repeat and how the satellite repeats originate and evolve are among the most intriguing and long-standing questions in centromere biology. We identified eight satellite repeats in the centromeres of tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Seven repeats showed characteristics associated with classical centromeric repeats with monomeric lengths ranging from 166 to 187 bp. Interestingly, these repeats share an 80-bp DNA motif. We demonstrate that this 80-bp motif may dictate translational and rotational phasing of the centromeric…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of Spiraeoideae-infecting Erwinia amylovora strains provides novel insight to genetic diversity and identifies the genetic basis of a low-virulence strain.

Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, one of the most devastating diseases of apple and pear. Erwinia amylovora is thought to have originated in North America and has now spread to at least 50 countries worldwide. An understanding of the diversity of the pathogen population and the transmission to different geographical regions is important for the future mitigation of this disease. In this research, we performed an expanded comparative genomic study of the Spiraeoideae-infecting (SI) E. amylovora population in North America and Europe. We discovered that, although still highly homogeneous, the genetic diversity of 30 E. amylovora genomes examined…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A high-quality genome sequence of Rosa chinensis to elucidate ornamental traits.

Rose is the world’s most important ornamental plant, with economic, cultural and symbolic value. Roses are cultivated worldwide and sold as garden roses, cut flowers and potted plants. Roses are outbred and can have various ploidy levels. Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. We produced a doubled haploid rose line (‘HapOB’) from Rosa chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and generated a rose genome assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Protocol: a versatile, inexpensive, high-throughput plant genomic DNA extraction method suitable for genotyping-by-sequencing.

The recent development of next-generation sequencing DNA marker technologies, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), generates thousands of informative single nucleotide polymorphism markers in almost any species, regardless of genomic resources. This enables poorly resourced or “orphan” crops/species access to high-density, high-throughput marker platforms which have revolutionised population genetics studies and plant breeding. DNA quality underpins success of GBS methods as the DNA must be amenable to restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. A barrier to implementing GBS technologies is access to inexpensive, high-throughput extraction methods that yield sequencing-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) from plants. Several high-throughput DNA extraction methods are available, but typically…

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