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Sunday, September 22, 2019

First draft genome of an iconic clownfish species (Amphiprion frenatus).

Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare groups to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus). We obtained 17,801 assembled scaffolds, containing a total of 26,917 genes. The completeness of the assembly…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete chloroplast genome of Chrysanthemum boreale (Asteraceae)

Chrysanthemum boreale is a perennial plant in the Asteraceae family that is native to eastern Asia and has both ornamental and herbal uses. Here, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequence for C. boreale using long-read sequencing. The chloroplast genome was 151,012?bp and consisted of a large single copy (LSC) region (82,817?bp), a small single copy (SSC) region (18,281?bp) and two inverted repeats (IRs) (24,957?bp). It was predicted to contain 131 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight rRNAs and 46 tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast genomes clustered C. boreale with other Chrysanthemum and Asteraceae species.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A molecular window into the biology and epidemiology of Pneumocystis spp.

Pneumocystis, a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro, making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Basidiomycete edible fungus Hypsizygus marmoreus

The complete mitochondrial genome of the edible fungus Hypsizygus marmoreus was published in this paper. It was determined using Pacbio and Illumina sequencing. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is 106,417?bp in length with a GC content of 31.74%, which was the fourth large mitogenome in Agaricales. The circular mitogenome encoded 67 protein-coding genes and one ribosomal RNAs (rns). Among these genes, 13 conserved protein-coding genes were determined in the genome, including 6 subunits of NAD dehydrogenase (nad1-4, 4L and 6), three cytochrome oxidases (cox1-3), one apocytochrome b (cob) and three ATP synthases (atp6, apt 8 and apt 9). The phylogenic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of the early flowering plant Nymphaea colorata is highly repetitive with low recombination.

Mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants (angiosperms) are highly dynamic in genome structure. The mitogenome of the earliest angiosperm Amborella is remarkable in carrying rampant foreign DNAs, in contrast to Liriodendron, the other only known early angiosperm mitogenome that is described as ‘fossilized’. The distinctive features observed in the two early flowering plant mitogenomes add to the current confusions of what early flowering plants look like. Expanded sampling would provide more details in understanding the mitogenomic evolution of early angiosperms. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of water lily Nymphaea colorata from Nymphaeales, one of the three orders of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Assembly and comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sophora japonica ‘JinhuaiJ2’.

Sophora japonica L. (Faboideae, Leguminosae) is an important traditional Chinese herb with a long history of cultivation. Its flower buds and fruits contain abundant flavonoids, and therefore, the plants are cultivated for the industrial extraction of rutin. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of S. japonica ‘JinhuaiJ2’, the most widely planted variety in Guangxi region of China. The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 484,916 bp, with a GC content of 45.4%. Sophora japonica mtDNA harbors 32 known protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes with 17 cis-spliced and five trans-spliced introns…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

PacBio-based mitochondrial genome assembly of Leucaena trichandra (Leguminosae) and an intrageneric assessment of mitochondrial RNA editing.

Reconstructions of vascular plant mitochondrial genomes (mt-genomes) are notoriously complicated by rampant recombination that has resulted in comparatively few plant mt-genomes being available. The dearth of plant mitochondrial resources has limited our understanding of mt-genome structural diversity, complex patterns of RNA editing, and the origins of novel mt-genome elements. Here, we use an efficient long read (PacBio) iterative assembly pipeline to generate mt-genome assemblies for Leucaena trichandra (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: mimosoid clade), providing the first assessment of non-papilionoid legume mt-genome content and structure to date. The efficiency of the assembly approach facilitated the exploration of alternative structures that are common place…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The linear mitochondrial genome of the quarantine chytrid Synchytrium endobioticum; insights into the evolution and recent history of an obligate biotrophic plant pathogen.

Chytridiomycota species (chytrids) belong to a basal lineage in the fungal kingdom. Inhabiting terrestrial and aquatic environments, most are free-living saprophytes but several species cause important diseases: e.g. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for worldwide amphibian decline; and Synchytrium endobioticum, causing potato wart disease. S. endobioticum has an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and isolates can be further characterized as pathotypes based on their virulence on a differential set of potato cultivars. Quarantine measures have been implemented globally to control the disease and prevent its spread. We used a comparative approach using chytrid mitogenomes to determine taxonomical relationships and to gain insights into the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparison of the mitochondrial genome sequences of six Annulohypoxylon stygium isolates suggests short fragment insertions as a potential factor leading to larger genomic size.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a core non-nuclear genetic material found in all eukaryotic organisms, the size of which varies extensively in the eumycota, even within species. In this study, mitochondrial genomes of six isolates of Annulohypoxylon stygium (Lév.) were assembled from raw reads from PacBio and Illumina sequencing. The diversity of genomic structures, conserved genes, intergenic regions and introns were analyzed and compared. Genome sizes ranged from 132 to 147 kb and contained the same sets of conserved protein-coding, tRNA and rRNA genes and shared the same gene arrangements and orientation. In addition, most intergenic regions were homogeneous and had…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Coix lacryma-jobi L.(Poaceae), a cereal and medicinal crop

Coix lacryma-jobi is a cereal and medicinal crop belonging to the Poaceae family. This study characterized complete chloroplast genome sequence of a Korean cultivar Johyun of C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen through the de novo hybrid assembly with Illumina and PacBio genomic reads. The chloroplast genome is 140,863?bp long and composed of large single copy (82,827?bp), small single copy (12,522?bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (each 22,757?bp). A total of 123 genes including 87 protein-coding genes, 32 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes were predicted in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed a close relationship of C. lacryma-jobi with species in…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of the red silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba)

Bombax ceiba L. is a beautiful and deciduous tree with great ecological and economic importance. The third generation sequencing of chloroplast genome of B. ceiba was conducted on the PacBio sequencing platform (Pacific Biosciences). The complete chloroplast genome was 158,997?bp, which contains a large single-copy (LSC) region (89,021?bp), a small single-copy (SSC) region (21,110?bp), and two inverted repeats (IRs) (24,433?bp). In total, 116 genes were annotated, including 81 protein-coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 27 tRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree showed that B. ceiba was closely clustered with one clade of Malvaceae.

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombax ceiba

Bombax ceiba is a beautiful and deciduous tree with important economic and ecological values. Here, we sequenced the intact mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. ceiba on the PacBio sequencing platform (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA). The mitogenome is 594,390bp and is comprised of 35 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 25 tRNA genes. The phylogeny analysis suggested that B. ceiba was closely clustered with the genus Gossypium.

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Friday, July 19, 2019

A mobile pathogenicity chromosome in Fusarium oxysporum for infection of multiple cucurbit species.

The genome of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) consists of a set of eleven ‘core’ chromosomes, shared by most strains and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several accessory chromosomes. We sequenced a strain of Fo f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum (Forc) using PacBio SMRT sequencing. All but one of the core chromosomes were assembled into single contigs, and a chromosome that shows all the hallmarks of a pathogenicity chromosome comprised two contigs. A central part of this chromosome contains all identified candidate effector genes, including homologs of SIX6, SIX9, SIX11 and SIX 13. We show that SIX6 contributes to virulence of Forc. Through horizontal…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The evolution of dark matter in the mitogenome of seed beetles.

Animal mitogenomes are generally thought of as being economic and optimized for rapid replication and transcription. We use long-read sequencing technology to assemble the remarkable mitogenomes of four species of seed beetles. These are the largest circular mitogenomes ever assembled in insects, ranging from 24,496 to 26,613?bp in total length, and are exceptional in that some 40% consists of non-coding DNA. The size expansion is due to two very long intergenic spacers (LIGSs), rich in tandem repeats. The two LIGSs are present in all species but vary greatly in length (114-10,408?bp), show very low sequence similarity, divergent tandem repeat motifs,…

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