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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome-wide analysis of the invertase gene family from maize.

The recent release of the maize genome (AGPv4) contains annotation errors of invertase genes and therefore the enzymes are bestly curated manually at the protein level in a comprehensible fashion The synthesis, transport and degradation of sucrose are determining factors for biomass allocation and yield of crop plants. Invertase (INV) is a key enzyme of carbon metabolism in both source and sink tissues. Current releases of the maize genome correctly annotates only two vacuolar invertases (ivr1 and ivr2) and four cell wall invertases (incw1, incw2 (mn1), incw3, and incw4). Our comprehensive survey identified 21 INV isogenes for which we propose…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evolutionary emergence of drug resistance in Candida opportunistic pathogens.

Fungal infections, such as candidiasis caused by Candida, pose a problem of growing medical concern. In developed countries, the incidence of Candida infections is increasing due to the higher survival of susceptible populations, such as immunocompromised patients or the elderly. Existing treatment options are limited to few antifungal drug families with efficacies that vary depending on the infecting species. In this context, the emergence and spread of resistant Candida isolates are being increasingly reported. Understanding how resistance can evolve within naturally susceptible species is key to developing novel, more effective treatment strategies. However, in contrast to the situation of antibiotic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fe-S cluster assembly in oxymonads and related protists.

The oxymonad Monocercomonoides exilis was recently reported to be the first eukaryote that has completely lost the mitochondrial compartment. It was proposed that an important prerequisite for such a radical evolutionary step was the acquisition of the SUF Fe-S cluster assembly pathway from prokaryotes, making the mitochondrial ISC pathway dispensable. We have investigated genomic and transcriptomic data from six oxymonad species and their relatives, composing the group Preaxostyla (Metamonada, Excavata), for the presence and absence of enzymes involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. None possesses enzymes of mitochondrial ISC pathway and all apparently possess the SUF pathway, composed of SufB, C,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mitochondrial genomes of two diplectanids (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) expose paraphyly of the order Dactylogyridea and extensive tRNA gene rearrangements.

Recent mitochondrial phylogenomics studies have reported a sister-group relationship of the orders Capsalidea and Dactylogyridea, which is inconsistent with previous morphology- and molecular-based phylogenies. As Dactylogyridea mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are currently represented by only one family, to improve the phylogenetic resolution, we sequenced and characterized two dactylogyridean parasites, Lamellodiscus spari and Lepidotrema longipenis, belonging to a non-represented family Diplectanidae.The L. longipenis mitogenome (15,433 bp) contains the standard 36 flatworm mitochondrial genes (atp8 is absent), whereas we failed to detect trnS1, trnC and trnG in L. spari (14,614 bp). Both mitogenomes exhibit unique gene orders (among the Monogenea), with a number…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The gold-standard genome of Aspergillus niger NRRL 3 enables a detailed view of the diversity of sugar catabolism in fungi.

The fungal kingdom is too large to be discovered exclusively by classical genetics. The access to omics data opens a new opportunity to study the diversity within the fungal kingdom and how adaptation to new environments shapes fungal metabolism. Genomes are the foundation of modern science but their quality is crucial when analysing omics data. In this study, we demonstrate how one gold-standard genome can improve functional prediction across closely related species to be able to identify key enzymes, reactions and pathways with the focus on primary carbon metabolism. Based on this approach we identified alternative genes encoding various steps…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Methanogenic and bacterial endosymbionts of free-living anaerobic ciliates

Trimyema compressum thrives in anoxic freshwater environments in which it preys on bacteria and grows with fermentative metabolisms. Like many anaerobic protozoa, instead of mitochondria, T. compressum possess hydrogenosomes, which are hydrogen-producing, energy-generating organelles characteristic of anaerobic protozoa and fungi. The cytoplasm of T. compressum harbours hydrogenotrophic methanogens that consume the hydrogen produced by hydrogenosome, which confers an energetic advantage to the host ciliate. Symbiotic associations between methanogenic archaea and Trimyema ciliates are thought to be established independently and/or repeatedly in their evolutional history. In addition to methanogenic symbionts, T. compressum houses bacterial symbiont TC1 whose function is unknown in…

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