Strain level microbiome profiling is needed for a full understanding of how microbial communities influence human health. Microbiome profiling of rRNA gene amplicons is a well-understood method that is rapid and inexpensive, but standard 16S rRNA gene methods generally cannot differentiate closely related strains. Whole genome/shotgun microbiome profiling is considered a higher-resolution alternative, but with decreased throughput and significantly increased sequencing costs and analysis burden. With both methods there are also challenges with microbial lysis, DNA preparation, and taxonomic analysis. Specialized microbiome-focused protocols were developed to achieve strain-level taxonomic differentiation using a rapid, high throughput rRNA gene assay. The protocol integrates lysis and DNA preparation improvements with a unique high information content amplicon and associated novel database to enable taxonomic differentiation of closely related microbial strains.
Aquella oligotrophica gen. nov. sp. nov.: A new member of the family Neisseriaceae isolated from laboratory tap water.
A bacterial strain designated as P08T was isolated from laboratory tap water during a water quality assessment in University of Malaya, Malaysia. The strain was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and aerobic bacterium. Complete genome of P08T comprised of a 2,820,660 bp chromosome with a G + C content of 36.43%. Both 16S rRNA phylogeny and phylogenetic tree inferred from the core gene matrix demonstrated that P08T formed a hitherto unknown subline within the family Neisseriaceae. Ortho average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI) values and the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) calculated from complete genome sequence indicated low relatedness between P08T and its phylogenetic neighbors. Respiratory quinone analysis revealed Q-8 as the only detectable quinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C14:0 , iso-C15:0 , and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c). The polar lipids consisted of uncharacterized aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. All aspects of phenotypic and phylogenetic data suggested that strain P08T represents a novel genus within family Neisseriaceae, for which the name Aquella gen. nov. is proposed. The type species of the genus is Aquella oligotrophica sp. nov., and the type strain is P08T (=LMG 29629T =DSM 100970T ). © 2019 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.
Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible unculturable bacteria from a healthy Japanese individual by using commercially available media. A 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene metagenomic analysis revealed that each culture medium showed bacterial growth depending on its selective features and a possibility of the presence of novel bacterial species. Whole genome sequencing of these candidate strains suggested the isolation of 8 novel bacterial species classified in the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Our approach indicates that a number of intestinal bacteria hitherto considered unculturable are potentially culturable and can be cultured on commercially available media. We have obtained novel gut bacteria from a healthy Japanese individual using a combination of comprehensive genomics and conventional culturing methods. We would expect that the discovery of such novel bacteria could illuminate pivotal roles for the gut microbiota in association with human health.