July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of the Robinia pseudoacacia L. symbiont Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123.

Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 was isolated in 2006, from effective nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia L. grown in lead-zinc mine tailing site, in Gansu Province, China. M. amorphae CCNWGS0123 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod strain. This paper characterized M. amorphae CCNWGS0123 and presents its complete genome sequence information and genome annotation. The 7,374,589 bp long genome which encodes 7136 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA coding genes, contains one chromosome and four plasmids. Moreover, a chromosome with no gaps was assembled.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium pusense VsBac-Y9, a bacterial symbiont of the dark septate endophytic fungus Veronaeopsis simplex Y34 with potential for improving fungal colonization in roots.

A Rhizobium-related bacterium (Rhizobium sp. VsBac-Y9) is a symbiont living with the dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus Veronaeopsis simplex Y34. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium sp. VsBac-Y9 with V. simplex Y34 improves the fungal colonization of tomato roots, resulting in a significant increase in aboveground biomass. This study sequenced the complete genome of this V. simplex-helper bacterium using the PacBio and Illumina MiSeq platforms. Hybrid assembly using SPAdes outputted a circular chromosome, a linear chromid, and a circular plasmid for a total genome 5,321,211 bp in size with a G?+?C content of 59.2%. Analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (atpD-dnaK-groEL-lepA-recA-rpoB-thrE) and calculation of average nucleotide identity, showed that VsBac-Y9 was affiliated with the species Agrobacterium pusense (syn. Rhizobium pusense). Genome analysis revealed that A. pusense VsBac-Y9 contains a series of genes responsible for the host interactions with both fungus and plant. Such genomic information will provide new insights into developing co-inoculants of endophytic fungus and its symbiotic bacterium in future agricultural innovation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. P3 isolated from potato scab diseased tubers

Streptomyces sp. P3 was isolated from potato scab diseased tubers in Pyeongchang, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea in 2017. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of P3 with 9,851,971 bp size (71.2% GC content) of the chromosome. The genome comprises 8,548 CDS, 18 rRNA and 66 tRNA genes. Although strain P3 did not show pathogenicity both potato tuber assay and radish seedling assay, it possesses tomatinase (tomA) gene among conserved pathogenicity-related genes in well characterized pathogenic Streptomyces. Thus, the genome sequences determined in this study will be useful to understand for pathogenic evolution in Streptomyces species, which already adapted to potato scab pathogens.


July 7, 2019  |  

Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

In this review, we highlight progress in the last year in characterizing known virulence factors like flagella and the Cag type IV secretion system with sophisticated struc- tural and biochemical approaches to yield new insight on the assembly and functions of these critical virulence determinants. Several aspects of Helicobacter pylori physi- ology were newly explored this year and evaluated for their functions during stom- ach colonization, including a fascinating role for the essential protease HtrA in allowing access of H. pylori to the basolateral side of the gastric epithelium through cleavage of the tight junction protein E- cadherin to facilitate CagA delivery. Molecular biology tools standard in model bacteria, including regulated gene expression during animal infection and fluorescent reporter gene fusions, were newly applied to H. py- lori to explore functions for urease beyond initial colonization and establish high salt consumption as a mediator of gene expression changes. New sequencing technolo- gies enabled validation of long postulated roles for DNA methylation in regulating H. pylori gene expression. On the cell biology side, elegant work using lineage tracing in the murine model and organoid primary cell culture systems has provided new in- sights into how H. pylori manipulates gastric tissue functions, locally and at a dis- tance, to promote its survival in the stomach and induce pathologic changes. Finally, new work has bolstered the case for genomic variation as an important mechanism to generate phenotypic diversity during changing environmental conditions in the context of diet manipulation in animal infection models and during human experi- mental infection after vaccination.


July 7, 2019  |  

Traditional Norwegian kveik are a genetically distinct group of domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewing yeasts.

The widespread production of fermented food and beverages has resulted in the domestication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts specifically adapted to beer production. While there is evidence beer yeast domestication was accelerated by industrialization of beer, there also exists a farmhouse brewing culture in western Norway which has passed down yeasts referred to as kveik for generations. This practice has resulted in ale yeasts which are typically highly flocculant, phenolic off flavor negative (POF-), and exhibit a high rate of fermentation, similar to previously characterized lineages of domesticated yeast. Additionally, kveik yeasts are reportedly high-temperature tolerant, likely due to the traditional practice of pitching yeast into warm (>28°C) wort. Here, we characterize kveik yeasts from 9 different Norwegian sources via PCR fingerprinting, whole genome sequencing of selected strains, phenotypic screens, and lab-scale fermentations. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that kveik yeasts form a distinct group among beer yeasts. Additionally, we identify a novel POF- loss-of-function mutation, as well as SNPs and CNVs potentially relevant to the thermotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, and high fermentation rate phenotypes of kveik strains. We also identify domestication markers related to flocculation in kveik. Taken together, the results suggest that Norwegian kveik yeasts are a genetically distinct group of domesticated beer yeasts with properties highly relevant to the brewing sector.


July 7, 2019  |  

Near-complete genome sequence of Ralstonia solanacearum T523, a phylotype I tomato phytopathogen isolated from the Philippines.

Ralstonia solanacearum strain T523 is the major phytopathogen causing tomato bacterial wilt in the Philippines. Here, we report the complete chromosome and draft megaplasmid genomes with predicted gene inventories supporting rhizo- sphere processes, extensive plant virulence effectors, and the production of bioac- tive signaling metabolites, such as ralstonin, micacocidin, and homoserine lactone.


July 7, 2019  |  

Methanogenic and bacterial endosymbionts of free-living anaerobic ciliates

Trimyema compressum thrives in anoxic freshwater environments in which it preys on bacteria and grows with fermentative metabolisms. Like many anaerobic protozoa, instead of mitochondria, T. compressum possess hydrogenosomes, which are hydrogen-producing, energy-generating organelles characteristic of anaerobic protozoa and fungi. The cytoplasm of T. compressum harbours hydrogenotrophic methanogens that consume the hydrogen produced by hydrogenosome, which confers an energetic advantage to the host ciliate. Symbiotic associations between methanogenic archaea and Trimyema ciliates are thought to be established independently and/or repeatedly in their evolutional history. In addition to methanogenic symbionts, T. compressum houses bacterial symbiont TC1 whose function is unknown in its cytoplasm. Recently, we analysed whole-genome sequence of TC1 symbiont to investigate its physiological function in the tripartite symbiosis and found that fatty acid synthesis fab operon of TC1 symbiont lacked typical transcriptional repressor, which is normally coded on the upstream of the fab operon. The sequence data suggested that TC1 symbiont contributes to host Trimyema by the synthesis of fatty acid or its derivative. In this review, we summarize the early works and recent progress of the studies on Trimyema ciliates, including a stably cultivable model protozoa T. compressum, and discuss about symbiotic associations in oxygen-scarce environments.


July 7, 2019  |  

The complete genome sequence of a marine sponge-associated bacteria, Bacillus safensis KCTC 12796BP, which produces the anti-allergic compounds

The full genome sequence of Bacillus safensis KCTC 12796BP which had been isolated from the marine sponge in the seawater of Jeju Island, was determined by Pac-Bio next- generation sequencing system. A circular chromosome in the length of 3,935,874 bp was obtained in addition to a circular form of plasmid having 36,690 bp. The G + C content of chromosome was 41.4%, and that of plasmid was 37.3%. The number of deduced CDSs in the chromosome was 3,980, whereas 36 CDS regions were determined in a plasmid. Among the deduced CDSs in chromosome, 81 tRNA genes and 24 rRNA genes in addition to one tmRNA were allocated. More than 30 CDSs for sporulation, 16 CDSs for spore coat, and 20 CDSs for germination were also assigned in the chromosome. Several genes for capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and for flagella biosynthesis and chemotaxis in addition to genes for osmotic tolerance through glycine-choline betaine pathway were also identified. Above all, the biosynthetic gene cluster for anti- allergic compounds seongsanamides were found among two non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters for secondary metabolites.


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