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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Biosynthesis of antibiotic chuangxinmycin from Actinoplanes tsinanensis.

Chuangxinmycin is an antibiotic isolated from Actinoplanes tsinanensis CPCC 200056 in the 1970s with a novel indole-dihydrothiopyran heterocyclic skeleton. Chuangxinmycin showed in vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo efficacy in mouse infection models as well as preliminary clinical trials. But the biosynthetic pathway of chuangxinmycin has been obscure since its discovery. Herein, we report the identification of a stretch of DNA from the genome of A. tsinanensis CPCC 200056 that encodes genes for biosynthesis of chuangxinmycin by bioinformatics analysis. The designated cxn cluster was then confirmed to be responsible for chuangxinmycin biosynthesis by direct cloning and heterologous expressing in Streptomyces…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

N4-cytosine DNA methylation regulates transcription and pathogenesis in Helicobacter pylori.

Many bacterial genomes exclusively display an N4-methyl cytosine base (m4C), whose physiological significance is not yet clear. Helicobacter pylori is a carcinogenic bacterium and the leading cause of gastric cancer in humans. Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 harbors a single m4C cytosine methyltransferase, M2.HpyAII which recognizes 5′ TCTTC 3′ sequence and methylates the first cytosine residue. To understand the role of m4C modification, M2.hpyAII deletion strain was constructed. Deletion strain displayed lower adherence to host AGS cells and reduced potential to induce inflammation and apoptosis. M2.hpyAII gene deletion strain exhibited reduced capacity for natural transformation, which was rescued in the complemented…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Synchronous termination of replication of the two chromosomes is an evolutionary selected feature in Vibrionaceae.

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the cholera disease, is commonly used as a model organism for the study of bacteria with multipartite genomes. Its two chromosomes of different sizes initiate their DNA replication at distinct time points in the cell cycle and terminate in synchrony. In this study, the time-delayed start of Chr2 was verified in a synchronized cell population. This replication pattern suggests two possible regulation mechanisms for other Vibrio species with different sized secondary chromosomes: Either all Chr2 start DNA replication with a fixed delay after Chr1 initiation, or the timepoint at which Chr2 initiates varies such…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Occurrence, evolution, and functions of DNA phosphorothioate epigenetics in bacteria.

The chemical diversity of physiological DNA modifications has expanded with the identification of phosphorothioate (PT) modification in which the nonbridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is replaced by sulfur. Together with DndFGH as cognate restriction enzymes, DNA PT modification, which is catalyzed by the DndABCDE proteins, functions as a bacterial restriction-modification (R-M) system that protects cells against invading foreign DNA. However, the occurrence of dnd systems across a large number of bacterial genomes and their functions other than R-M are poorly understood. Here, a genomic survey revealed the prevalence of bacterial dnd systems: 1,349 bacterial dnd systems were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Challenges of Francisella classification exemplified by an atypical clinical isolate.

The accumulation of sequenced Francisella strains has made it increasingly apparent that the 16S rRNA gene alone is not enough to stratify the Francisella genus into precise and clinically useful classifications. Continued whole-genome sequencing of isolates will provide a larger base of knowledge for targeted approaches with broad applicability. Additionally, examination of genomic information on a case-by-case basis will help resolve outstanding questions regarding strain stratification. We report the complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate, designated here as F. novicida-like strain TCH2015, acquired from the lymph node of a 6-year-old male. Two features were atypical for F. novicida: exhibition…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification and pathogenomic analysis of an Escherichia coli strain producing a novel Shiga toxin 2 subtype.

Shiga toxin (Stx) is the key virulent factor in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To date, three Stx1 subtypes and seven Stx2 subtypes have been described in E. coli, which differed in receptor preference and toxin potency. Here, we identified a novel Stx2 subtype designated Stx2h in E. coli strains isolated from wild marmots in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Stx2h shares 91.9% nucleic acid sequence identity and 92.9% amino acid identity to the nearest Stx2 subtype. The expression of Stx2h in type strain STEC299 was inducible by mitomycin C, and culture supernatant from STEC299 was cytotoxic to Vero cells. The…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Haemophilus influenzae genome evolution during persistence in the human airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens. Strains persisted in individuals with COPD…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of plasmid-encoded NDM-1 and GES-5 carbapenemases among extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae in Durban, South Africa.

Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed the presence of blaNDM-1 (n = 31), blaGES-5 (n = 8), blaOXA-232 (n = 1), or blaNDM-5 (n = 1) in extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae organisms isolated from in-patients in 10 private hospitals (2012 to 2013) in Durban, South Africa. Two novel NDM-1-encoding plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae were circularized by PacBio sequencing. In p19-10_01 [IncFIB(K); 223.434 bp], blaNDM-1 was part of a Tn1548-like structure (16.276 bp) delineated by IS26 The multireplicon plasmid p18-43_01 [IncR_1/IncFIB(pB171)/IncFII(Yp); 212.326 bp] shared an 80-kb region with p19-10_01, not including the blaNDM-1-containing region. The two plasmids were used as references for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The evolution of genomic and epigenomic features in two Pleurotus fungi.

Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu, designated Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Xingbaogu, designated Pe) are highly valued edible mushrooms. We report de novo assemblies of high-quality genomes for both mushrooms based on PacBio RS II sequencing and annotation of all identified genes. A comparative genomics analysis between Pt and Pe with P. ostreatus as an outgroup taxon revealed extensive genomic divergence between the two mushroom genomes primarily due to the rapid gain of taxon-specific genes and disruption of synteny in either taxon. The re-appraised phylogenetic relationship between Pt and Pe at the genome-wide level validates earlier proposals to designate Pt as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evolutionary history of bacteriophages in the genus Paraburkholderia.

The genus Paraburkholderia encompasses mostly environmental isolates with diverse predicted lifestyles. Genome analyses have shown that bacteriophages form a considerable portion of some Paraburkholderia genomes. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary history of prophages across all Paraburkholderia spp. Specifically, we investigated to what extent the presence of prophages and their distribution affect the diversity/diversification of Paraburkholderia spp., as well as to what extent phages coevolved with their respective hosts. Particular attention was given to the presence of CRISPR-Cas arrays as a reflection of past interactions with phages. We thus analyzed 36 genomes of Paraburkholderia spp., including those of 11 new strains,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in ready-to-eat vegetables in China.

Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer’s markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing. CRE isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten vegetable samples yielded one or more CRE isolates. The highest detection…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete genome sequence of Vibrio aestuarianus W-40 reveals virulence factor genes.

Vibrio aestuarianus is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that has been associated with epidemics in cultured shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Hepatopancreas microsporidian (HPM) and monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) have been reported in cultured P. vannamei. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40, a strain that was originally isolated from the intestines of an infected P. vannamei. The genome of V. aestuarianus strain W-40 contains two circular chromosomes of 483,7307 bp with a 46.23% GC content. We identified 4,457 open reading frames (ORFs) that occupy 86.35% of the genome. Vibrio aestuarianus strain W-40 consists primarily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Plasmids carrying DHA-1 ß-lactamases.

The aim of this review is to provide an update on the plasmids mediating DHA-1 cephalosporinase in Klebsiella pneumoniae. These plasmids have been mainly found in this bacterium but not only. The first was isolated from Salmonella sp. in France in the early 1990s. They are currently reported worldwide. BlaDHA-1 beta-lactamase gene is usually co-expressed with many other antibiotic resistance genes such as extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (blaCTX-M-, bla SHV -types), oxacillinases (blaOXA-1, blaOXA-30), penicillinases (bla TEM -type), carbapenemases (bla OXA48 , blaKPC-2), aminoglycosides (aacA, aadA, armA), fluoroquinolones (qnrB4, aac6′-1b-cr), and sulfonamide (sul1) resistance genes. Plasmids carrying DHA-1 cephalosporinase have different sizes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

N6-methyladenine DNA modification in the human genome.

DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) modification is the most prevalent DNA modification in prokaryotes, but whether it exists in human cells and whether it plays a role in human diseases remain enigmatic. Here, we showed that 6mA is extensively present in the human genome, and we cataloged 881,240 6mA sites accounting for ~0.051% of the total adenines. [G/C]AGG[C/T] was the most significantly associated motif with 6mA modification. 6mA sites were enriched in the coding regions and mark actively transcribed genes in human cells. DNA 6mA and N6-demethyladenine modification in the human genome were mediated by methyltransferase N6AMT1 and demethylase ALKBH1, respectively. The…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain, KAB03 belonging to ST451 from Korea.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains have emerged rapidly worldwide. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of XDR A. baumannii strains show regional differences; therefore, it is necessary to analyze both genomic and proteomic characteristics of emerging XDR A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in Korea to elucidate their multidrug resistance. Here, we isolated new sequence type of XDR A. baumannii clinical strain (KAB03) from Korean hospitals and performed comprehensive genome analyses. The strain belongs to new sequence type, ST451. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis with other types of A. baumannii strains revealed that KAB03 has unique SNP pattern in the regions of…

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