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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of the florfenicol resistance floR gene among clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in China.

Florfenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol that is used only for the treatment of animal diseases. A key resistance gene for florfenicol, floR, can spread among bacteria of the same and different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer. To analyze the potential transmission of resistance genes between animal and human pathogens, we investigated floR in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patient samples. floR in human pathogens may originate from animal pathogens and would reflect the risk to human health of using antimicrobial agents in animals.PCR was used to identify floR-positive strains. The floR genes were cloned, and the minimum inhibitory…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Insights into the microbiota of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) with tenacibaculosis symptoms and description of sp. nov. Tenacibaculum singaporense

Outbreaks of diseases in farmed fish remain a recurring problem despite the development of vaccines and improved hygiene standards on aquaculture farms. One commonly observed bacterial disease in tropical aquaculture of the South-East Asian region is tenacibaculosis, which is attributed to members of the Bacteroidetes genus Tenacibaculum, most notably T. maritimum. The impact of tenacibaculosis on fish microbiota remains poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the microbiota of different tissue types of commercially reared Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) that showed symptoms of tenacibaculosis and compared the microbial communities to those of healthy and experimentally infected fish that were exposed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of Weissella koreensis reveal its metabolic and fermentative features during kimchi fermentation

The genomic and metabolic features of Weissella koreensis, one of the major lactic acid bacteria in kimchi, were investigated through genomic, metabolic, and transcriptomic analyses for the genomes of strains KCTC 3621T, KACC 15510, and WiKim0080. W. koreensis strains were intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and harbored potential hemolysin genes that were actively transcribed although no hemolysin activity was detected. KEGG and reconstructed fermentative metabolic pathways displayed that W. koreensis strains commonly employ the heterolactic pathway to produce d-lactate, ethanol, acetate, CO2, d-sorbitol, thiamine, and folate from various carbohydrates including d-glucose, d-mannose, d-lactose, l-malate, d-xylose, l-arabinose, d-ribose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and gluconate, and strains KCTC 3621T and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae with chromosomally encoded blaNDM-1.

We report here Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying chromosomal blaNDM-1 in Thailand. The genomes of these two isolates include a 160-kbp insertion containing blaNDM-1, which is almost identical to that in the IncHI1B-like plasmid. Further analysis indicated that IS5-mediated intermolecular transposition and Tn3 transposase-mediated homologous recombination resulted in the integration of blaNDM-1 into the chromosome from an IncHI1B-like plasmid. The spread of this type of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may threaten public health and warrants further monitoring. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Description of Schaedlerella arabinophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a D-arabinose utilizing bacterium isolated from feces of C57BL/6J mice and a close relative of Clostridium sp. ASF 502

The use of gnotobiotics has gained large interest in recent years due to technological advances that have revealed the importance of host-associated microbiomes for host physiology and health. One of the oldest and most important gnotobiotics mouse model, the Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF) has been used for several decades. ASF comprises eight different bacterial species, which have been characterized to different extent, but only few are available through public strain collections. Here, the isolation of a close relative to one of the less studied ASF strains, Clostridium sp. ASF 502, is reported. Isolate TLL-A1, which shares 99.6% 16S rRNA gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

CompStor Novos: a low cost yet fast assembly-based variant calling for personal genomes

Application of assembly methods for personal genome analysis from next generation sequencing data has been limited by the requirement for an expensive supercomputer hardware or long computation times when using ordinary resources. We describe CompStor Novos, achieving supercomputer-class performance in de novo assembly computation time on standard server hardware, based on a tiered-memory algorithm. Run on commercial off-the-shelf servers, Novos assembly is more precise and 10-20 times faster than that of existing assembly algorithms. Furthermore, we integrated Novos into a variant calling pipeline and demonstrate that both compute times and precision of calling point variants and indels compare well with…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Mutators as drivers of adaptation in Streptococcus and a risk factor for host jumps and vaccine escape

Heritable hypermutable strains deficient in DNA repair genes (mutators) facilitate microbial adaptation as they may rapidly generate beneficial mutations. Mutators deficient in mismatch (MMR) and oxidised guanine (OG) repair are abundant in clinical samples and show increased adaptive potential in experimental infection models but their role in pathoadaptation is poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of mutators in epidemiology and evolution of the broad host pathogen, Streptococcus iniae, employing 80 strains isolated globally over 40 years. We determine phylogenetic relationship among S. iniae using 10,267 non-recombinant core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), estimate their mutation rate by fluctuation analysis,…

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Saturday, September 21, 2019

Chromulinavorax destructans, a pathogenic TM6 bacterium with an unusual replication strategy targeting protist mitochondrion

Most of the diversity of microbial life is not available in culture, and as such we lack even a fundamental understanding of the biological diversity of several branches on the tree of life. One branch that is highly underrepresented is the candidate phylum TM6, also known as the Dependentiae. Their biology is known only from reduced genomes recovered from metagenomes around the world and two isolates infecting amoebae, all suggest that they live highly host-associated lifestyles as parasites or symbionts. Chromulinavorax destructans is an isolate from the TM6/Dependentiae that infects and lyses the abundant heterotrophic flagellate, Spumella elongata. Chromulinavorax destructans…

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Monday, January 23, 2017

Tutorial: Circular Consensus Sequence analysis application

This tutorial provides an overview of the Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) analysis application. The CCS algorithm is used in applications that require distinguishing closely related DNA molecules in the same sample. Applications of CCS include profiling microbial communities, resolving viral populations and accurately identifying somatic variations within heterogeneous tumor cells.

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