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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of the fruiting myxobacterium Cystobacter fuscus DSM 52655.

Among myxobacteria, the genus Cystobacter is known not only for fruiting body formation but also for formation of secondary metabolites, such as cystobactamids and cystothiazols. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the Cystobacter fuscus strain DSM 52655, which comprises 12,349,744 bp and 9,836 putative protein-coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Treuner-Lange et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of the fruiting myxobacterium Nannocystis exedens DSM 71.

In response to starvation, members of the order Myxococcales form morphologically very different fruiting bodies. To determine whether fruiting myxobacteria share a common genetic program that leads to fruiting body formation, we sequenced and assembled the genome of Nannocystis exedens DSM 71 as two contigs with a total GC content of 72%. Copyright © 2017 Treuner-Lange et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Dense and accurate whole-chromosome haplotyping of individual genomes.

The diploid nature of the human genome is neglected in many analyses done today, where a genome is perceived as a set of unphased variants with respect to a reference genome. This lack of haplotype-level analyses can be explained by a lack of methods that can produce dense and accurate chromosome-length haplotypes at reasonable costs. Here we introduce an integrative phasing strategy that combines global, but sparse haplotypes obtained from strand-specific single-cell sequencing (Strand-seq) with dense, yet local, haplotype information available through long-read or linked-read sequencing. We provide comprehensive guidance on the required sequencing depths and reliably assign more than…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss.

Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas. Anaerobic metabolism has not yet been observed in SAR11, and it remains unknown how these bacteria contribute to OMZ biogeochemical cycling. Here, genomic analysis of single cells from the world’s largest OMZ revealed previously uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen, including genes for respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar). SAR11 nar genes…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Lysobacter capsici AZ78 genome has a gene pool enabling it to interact successfully with phytopathogenic microorganisms and environmental factors.

Lysobacter capsici AZ78 has considerable potential for biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. However, lack of information about genetic cues regarding its biological characteristics may slow down its exploitation as a biofungicide. In order to obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic features, the L. capsici AZ78 genome was sequenced, annotated and compared with the phylogenetically related pathogens Stenotrophomonas malthophilia K729a and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913. Whole genome comparison, supported by functional analysis, indicated that L. capsici AZ78 has a larger number of genes responsible for interaction with phytopathogens and environmental stress than S. malthophilia K729a and X. c. pv. campestris…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Adaptive radiation by waves of gene transfer leads to fine-scale resource partitioning in marine microbes.

Adaptive radiations are important drivers of niche filling, since they rapidly adapt a single clade of organisms to ecological opportunities. Although thought to be common for animals and plants, adaptive radiations have remained difficult to document for microbes in the wild. Here we describe a recent adaptive radiation leading to fine-scale ecophysiological differentiation in the degradation of an algal glycan in a clade of closely related marine bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary driver in the diversification of the pathway leading to several ecophysiologically differentiated Vibrionaceae populations adapted to different physical forms of alginate. Pathway architecture is predictive of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Spontaneous chloroplast mutants mostly occur by replication slippage and show a biased pattern in the plastome of Oenothera.

Spontaneous plastome mutants have been used as a research tool since the beginning of genetics. However, technical restrictions have severely limited their contributions to research in physiology and molecular biology. Here, we used full plastome sequencing to systematically characterize a collection of 51 spontaneous chloroplast mutants in Oenothera (evening primrose). Most mutants carry only a single mutation. Unexpectedly, the vast majority of mutations do not represent single nucleotide polymorphisms but are insertions/deletions originating from DNA replication slippage events. Only very few mutations appear to be caused by imprecise double-strand break repair, nucleotide misincorporation during replication, or incorrect nucleotide excision repair…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Modular traits of the Rhizobiales root microbiota and their evolutionary relationship with symbiotic Rhizobia.

Rhizobia are a paraphyletic group of soil-borne bacteria that induce nodule organogenesis in legume roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen for plant growth. In non-leguminous plants, species from the Rhizobiales order define a core lineage of the plant microbiota, suggesting additional functional interactions with plant hosts. In this work, genome analyses of 1,314 Rhizobiales isolates along with amplicon studies of the root microbiota reveal the evolutionary history of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in this bacterial order. Key symbiosis genes were acquired multiple times, and the most recent common ancestor could colonize roots of a broad host range. In addition, root growth promotion is…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Loss of RXFP2 and INSL3 genes in Afrotheria shows that testicular descent is the ancestral condition in placental mammals.

Descent of testes from a position near the kidneys into the lower abdomen or into the scrotum is an important developmental process that occurs in all placental mammals, with the exception of five afrotherian lineages. Since soft-tissue structures like testes are not preserved in the fossil record and since key parts of the placental mammal phylogeny remain controversial, it has been debated whether testicular descent is the ancestral or derived condition in placental mammals. To resolve this debate, we used genomic data of 71 mammalian species and analyzed the evolution of two key genes (relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 [RXFP2]…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Meeting report: mobile genetic elements and genome plasticity 2018

The Mobile Genetic Elements and Genome Plasticity conference was hosted by Keystone Symposia in Santa Fe, NM USA, February 11–15, 2018. The organizers were Marlene Belfort, Evan Eichler, Henry Levin and Lynn Maquat. The goal of this conference was to bring together scientists from around the world to discuss the function of transposable elements and their impact on host species. Central themes of the meeting included recent innovations in genome analysis and the role of mobile DNA in disease and evolution. The conference included 200 scientists who participated in poster presentations, short talks selected from abstracts, and invited talks. A…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic features of the Helicobacter pylori strain PMSS1 and its virulence attributes as deduced from its in vivo colonisation patterns.

The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori occurs in two basic variants, either exhibiting a functional cagPAI-encoded type-4-secretion-system (T4SS) or not. Only a few cagPAI-positive strains have been successfully adapted for long-term infection of mice, including the pre-mouse Sydney strain 1 (PMSS1). Here we confirm that PMSS1 induces gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration in mice, progressing to intestinal metaplasia. Complete genome analysis of PMSS1 revealed 1,423 coding sequences, encompassing the cagPAI gene cluster and, unusually, the location of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) approximately 15 kb downstream of the island. PMSS1 harbours three genetically exchangeable loci that are occupied by the…

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