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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of the Baltic Sea toxic cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 and its response to varying salinity.

Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena, the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp) and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome analysis of Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, a planctomycete with confirmed chitinolytic capability.

Members of the bacterial order Planctomycetales have often been observed in associations with Crustacea. The ability to degrade chitin, however, has never been reported for any of the cultured planctomycetes although utilization of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is well recognized for these bacteria. Here, we demonstrate the chitinolytic capability of a member of the family Gemmataceae, Fimbriiglobus ruber SP5T, which was isolated from a peat bog. As revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis of chitin-amended peat, the pool of 16S rRNA reads from F. ruber increased in response to chitin availability. Strain SP5T displayed only weak growth…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Benefit from decline: the primary transcriptome of Alteromonas macleodii str. Te101 during Trichodesmium demise.

Interactions between co-existing microorganisms deeply affect the physiology of the involved organisms and, ultimately, the function of the ecosystem as a whole. Copiotrophic Alteromonas are marine gammaproteobacteria that thrive during the late stages of phytoplankton blooms in the marine environment and in laboratory co-cultures with cyanobacteria such as Trichodesmium. The response of this heterotroph to the sometimes rapid and transient changes in nutrient supply when the phototroph crashes is not well understood. Here, we isolated and sequenced the strain Alteromonas macleodii str. Te101 from a laboratory culture of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101, yielding a chromosome of 4.63?Mb and a single plasmid…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conserved genomic and amino acid traits of cold adaptation in subzero-growing Arctic permafrost bacteria.

Permafrost accounts for 27% of all soil ecosystems and harbors diverse microbial communities. Our understanding of microorganisms in permafrost, their activities and adaptations, remains limited. Using five subzero-growing (cryophilic) permafrost bacteria, we examined features of cold adaptation through comparative genomic analyses with mesophilic relatives. The cryophiles possess genes associated with cold adaptation, including cold shock proteins, RNA helicases, and oxidative stress and carotenoid synthesis enzymes. Higher abundances of genes associated with compatible solutes were observed, important for osmoregulation in permafrost brine veins. Most cryophiles in our study have higher transposase copy numbers than mesophiles. We investigated amino acid (AA) modifications…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Solar-panel and parasol strategies shape the proteorhodopsin distribution pattern in marine Flavobacteriia.

Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a light-driven proton pump that is found in diverse bacteria and archaea species, and is widespread in marine microbial ecosystems. To date, many studies have suggested the advantage of PR for microorganisms in sunlit environments. The ecophysiological significance of PR is still not fully understood however, including the drivers of PR gene gain, retention, and loss in different marine microbial species. To explore this question we sequenced 21 marine Flavobacteriia genomes of polyphyletic origin, which encompassed both PR-possessing as well as PR-lacking strains. Here, we show that the possession or alternatively the lack of PR genes reflects…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic comparison between members of the Salinibacteraceae family, and description of a new species of Salinibacter (Salinibacter altiplanensis sp. nov.) isolated from high altitude hypersaline environments of the Argentinian Altiplano.

The application of tandem MALDI-TOF MS screening with 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected isolates has been demonstrated to be an excellent approach for retrieving novelty from large-scale culturing. The application of such methodologies in different hypersaline samples allowed the isolation of the culture-recalcitrant Salinibacter ruber second phylotype (EHB-2) for the first time, as well as a new species recently isolated from the Argentinian Altiplano hypersaline lakes. In this study, the genome sequences of the different species of the phylum Rhodothermaeota were compared and the genetic repertoire along the evolutionary gradient was analyzed together with each intraspecific variability. Altogether, the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Isolation, functional characterization and transmissibility of p3PS10, a multidrug resistance plasmid of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern due to its association with the loss of efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Horizontal transfer events may play a significant role in the dissemination of resistant bacterial phenotypes, being mobilizable plasmids a well-known mechanism. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the genetics underlying the development of antibiotic resistance by Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates, a bacterial fish pathogen and causative agent of salmonid piscirickettsiosis, and the main target of antibiotics used in Chilean salmon farming. We provide experimental evidence that the plasmid p3PS10, which harbors multidrug resistance genes for chloramphenicol (cat2), tetracyclines…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome mining of the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. DUT11 and discovery of tunicamycins as anti-complement agents.

Marine actinobacteria are potential producers of various secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities. Among various bioactive compounds, anti-complement agents have received great interest for drug discovery to treat numerous diseases caused by inappropriate activation of the human complement system. However, marine streptomycetes producing anti-complement agents are still poorly explored. In this study, a marine-derived strain Streptomyces sp. DUT11 showing superior anti-complement activity was focused, and its genome sequence was analyzed. Gene clusters showing high similarities to that of tunicamycin and nonactin were identified, and their corresponding metabolites were also detected. Subsequently, tunicamycin I, V, and VII were isolated from Streptomyces sp.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics provides insights into the marine adaptation in sponge-derived Kocuriaflava S43.

Sponge-derived actinomycetes represent a significant component of marine actinomycetes. Members of the genus Kocuria are distributed in various habitats such as soil, rhizosphere, clinical specimens, marine sediments, and sponges, however, to date, little is known about the mechanism of their environmental adaptation. Kocuria flava S43 was isolated from a coastal sponge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was closely related to the terrestrial airborne K. flava HO-9041. In this study, to gain insights into the marine adaptation in K. flava S43 we sequenced the draft genome for K. flava S43 by third generation sequencing (TGS) and compared it with those of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Co-culture of soil biofilm isolates enables the discovery of novel antibiotics

Bacterial natural products (NPs) are considered to be a promising source of drug discovery. However, the biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) of NP are not often expressed, making it difficult to identify them. Recently, the study of biofilm community showed bacteria may gain competitive advantages by the secretion of antibiotics, implying a possible way to screen antibiotic by evaluating the social behavior of bacteria. In this study, we have described an efficient workflow for novel antibiotic discovery by employing the bacterial social interaction strategy with biofilm cultivation, co-culture, transcriptomic and genomic methods. We showed that a biofilm dominant species, i.e. Pseudomonas…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Two ancestral genes shaped the Xanthomonas campestris TAL effector gene repertoire.

Xanthomonas transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are injected inside plant cells to promote host susceptibility by enhancing transcription of host susceptibility genes. TALE-encoding (tal) genes were thought to be absent from Brassicaceae-infecting Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) genomes based on four reference genomic sequences. We discovered tal genes in 26 of 49 Xc strains isolated worldwide and used a combination of single molecule real time (SMRT) and tal amplicon sequencing to yield a near-complete description of the TALEs found in Xc (Xc TALome). The 53 sequenced tal genes encode 21 distinct DNA binding domains that sort into seven major DNA binding specificities. In…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Redefinition and unification of the SXT/R391 family of integrative and conjugative elements.

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5′ end of the chromosomal gene prfC Hence, the integrase gene int has been intensively used as a marker to detect SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical isolates. ICEs sharing most core genes but differing by their integration site and integrase gene have been recently reported and excluded from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Potential survival and pathogenesis of a novel strain, Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_022, isolated from a soy sauce marinated crab by genome and transcriptome analyses.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause gastrointestinal illness through consumption of seafood. Despite frequent food-borne outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus, only 19 strains have subjected to complete whole-genome analysis. In this study, a novel strain of V. parahaemolyticus, designated FORC_022 (Food-borne pathogen Omics Research Center_022), was isolated from soy sauce marinated crabs, and its genome and transcriptome were analyzed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms. FORC_022 did not include major virulence factors of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh). However, FORC_022 showed high cytotoxicity and had several V. parahaemolyticus islands (VPaIs) and other virulence factors, such as various secretion systems (types I,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Quorum-quenching bacteria isolated from Red Sea sediments reduce biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria communicate with each other through small signaling molecules such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Certain bacteria can degrade AHL molecules by a process called quorum quenching (QQ); therefore, QQ can be used to control bacterial infections and biofilm formation. In this study, we aimed to identify new species of bacteria with QQ activity. Red Sea sediments were collected either from the close vicinity of seagrass or from areas with no vegetation. We isolated 72 bacterial strains, which were tested for their ability to degrade/inactivate AHL molecules. Chromobacterium violaceum CV026-based bioassay was used…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic and biochemical characterization of 5-hydroxypicolinic acid metabolism in Alcaligenes faecalis JQ135.

5-Hydroxypicolinic acid (5HPA), a natural pyridine derivative, is microbially degraded in the environment. However, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic foundations of the 5HPA metabolism remain unknown. In this study, an operon (hpa), responsible for 5HPA degradation, was cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis JQ135. HpaM was a monocomponent FAD-dependent monooxygenase and shared low identity (only 28-31%) with reported monooxygenases. HpaM catalyzed the ortho decarboxylative hydroxylation of 5HPA, generating 2,5-dihydroxypyridine (2,5DHP). The monooxygenase activity of HpaM was FAD and NADH-dependent. The apparent Km values of HpaM for 5HPA and NADH were 45.4 µM and 37.8 µM, respectively. The genes hpaX, hpaD, and hpaF…

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