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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic insights into the acid adaptation of novel methanotrophs enriched from acidic forest soils.

Soil acidification is accelerated by anthropogenic and agricultural activities, which could significantly affect global methane cycles. However, detailed knowledge of the genomic properties of methanotrophs adapted to acidic soils remains scarce. Using metagenomic approaches, we analyzed methane-utilizing communities enriched from acidic forest soils with pH 3 and 4, and recovered near-complete genomes of proteobacterial methanotrophs. Novel methanotroph genomes designated KS32 and KS41, belonging to two representative clades of methanotrophs (Methylocystis of Alphaproteobacteria and Methylobacter of Gammaproteobacteria), were dominant. Comparative genomic analysis revealed diverse systems of membrane transporters for ensuring pH homeostasis and defense against toxic chemicals. Various potassium transporter systems,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome profiling of two ornamental and medicinal papaver herbs.

The Papaver spp. (Papaver rhoeas (Corn poppy) and Papaver nudicaule (Iceland poppy)) genera are ornamental and medicinal plants that are used for the isolation of alkaloid drugs. In this study, we generated 700 Mb of transcriptome sequences with the PacBio platform. They were assembled into 120,926 contigs, and 1185 (82.2%) of the benchmarking universal single-copy orthologs (BUSCO) core genes were completely present in our assembled transcriptome. Furthermore, using 128 Gb of Illumina sequences, the transcript expression was assessed at three stages of Papaver plant development (30, 60, and 90 days), from which we identified 137 differentially expressed transcripts. Furthermore, three…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from red lip mullet, Liza haematocheila: Evaluation of molecular structure, immune response, and antioxidant function.

Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant metalloenzyme. The main function of this enzyme is to dismutase the toxic superoxide anion (O2-) into less toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen (O2). Structural analysis of mullet MnSOD (MuMnSOD) was performed using different bioinformatics tools. Pairwise alignment revealed that the protein sequence matched to that derived from Larimichthys crocea with a 95.2% sequence identity. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the MuMnSOD was included in the category of teleosts. Multiple sequence alignment showed that a SOD Fe-N domain, SOD Fe-C domain, and Mn/Fe SOD signature were highly conserved among the other examined…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The full transcription map of mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1) in mouse wart tissues.

Mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1) provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study infection and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of laboratory mice. In this report, we define the transcriptome of MmuPV1 genome present in papillomas arising in experimentally infected mice using a combination of RNA-seq, PacBio Iso-seq, 5′ RACE, 3′ RACE, primer-walking RT-PCR, RNase protection, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses. We demonstrate that the MmuPV1 genome is transcribed unidirectionally from five major promoters (P) or transcription start sites (TSS) and polyadenylates its transcripts at two major polyadenylation (pA) sites. We designate the P7503, P360 and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of the hybrid genomes of two field isolates of the soil-borne fungal species Verticillium longisporum.

Brassica plant species are attacked by a number of pathogens; among them, the ones with a soil-borne lifestyle have become increasingly important. Verticillium stem stripe caused by Verticillium longisporum is one example. This fungal species is thought to be of a hybrid origin, having a genome composed of combinations of lineages denominated A and D. In this study we report the draft genomes of 2 V. longisporum field isolates sequenced using the Illumina technology. Genomic characterization and lineage composition, followed by selected gene analysis to facilitate the comprehension of its genomic features and potential effector categories were performed.The draft genomes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reduction of nonspecificity motifs in synthetic antibody libraries.

Successful antibody development requires both functional binding and desirable biophysical characteristics. In the current study, we analyze the causes of one hurdle to clinical development, off-target reactivity, or nonspecificity. We used a high-throughput nonspecificity assay to isolate panels of nonspecific antibodies from two synthetic single-chain variable fragment libraries expressed on the surface of yeast, identifying both individual amino acids and motifs within the complementarity-determining regions which contribute to the phenotype. We find enrichment of glycine, valine, and arginine as both individual amino acids and as a part of motifs, and additionally enrichment of motifs containing tryptophan. Insertion of any of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Construction and characterization of bacterial artificial chromosomes harboring the full-length genome of a highly attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8.

LC16m8 (m8), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus (VAC) strain, was developed as a smallpox vaccine, and its safety and immunogenicity have been confirmed. Here, we aimed to develop a system that recovers infectious m8 from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that retains the full-length viral genomic DNA (m8-BAC system). The infectious virus was successfully recovered from a VAC-BAC plasmid, named pLC16m8-BAC. Furthermore, the bacterial replicon-free virus was generated by intramolecular homologous recombination and was successfully recovered from a modified VAC-BAC plasmid, named pLC16m8.8S-BAC. Also, the growth of the recovered virus was indistinguishable from that of authentic m8. The full genome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rapid allopolyploid radiation of moonwort ferns (Botrychium; Ophioglossaceae) revealed by PacBio sequencing of homologous and homeologous nuclear regions.

Polyploidy is a major speciation process in vascular plants, and is postulated to be particularly important in shaping the diversity of extant ferns. However, limitations in the availability of bi-parental markers for ferns have greatly limited phylogenetic investigation of polyploidy in this group. With a large number of allopolyploid species, the genus Botrychium is a classic example in ferns where recurrent polyploidy is postulated to have driven frequent speciation events. Here, we use PacBio sequencing and the PURC bioinformatics pipeline to capture all homeologous or allelic copies of four long (~1?kb) low-copy nuclear regions from a sample of 45 specimens…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of the Baltic Sea toxic cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 and its response to varying salinity.

Salinity is an important abiotic factor controlling the distribution and abundance of Nodularia spumigena, the dominating diazotrophic and toxic phototroph, in the brackish water cyanobacterial blooms of the Baltic Sea. To expand the available genomic information for brackish water cyanobacteria, we sequenced the isolate Nodularia spumigena UHCC 0039 using an Illumina-SMRT hybrid sequencing approach, revealing a chromosome of 5,294,286 base pairs (bp) and a single plasmid of 92,326 bp. Comparative genomics in Nostocales showed pronounced genetic similarity among Nodularia spumigena strains evidencing their short evolutionary history. The studied Baltic Sea strains share similar sets of CRISPR-Cas cassettes and a higher…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomic insights into endofungal lifestyles of two bacterial endosymbionts, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens and Burkholderia rhizoxinica.

Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T. The genomes of B1-EBT and Mc-AG77 contained a higher level of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Capnocytophaga endodontalis sp. nov., isolated from a human refractory periapical abscess.

A novel Gram-negative, capnophilic, fusiform bacterium, designated strain ChDC OS43T, was isolated from a human refractory periapical abscess in the left mandibular second molar and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belongs to the genus Capnocytophaga, as it showed sequence similarities to Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 27872T(96.30%) and C. sputigena ATCC 33612T(96.16%). The prevalent fatty acids of strain ChDC OS43Twere isoC15:0(57.54%), C16:0(5.93%), C16:03OH (5.72%), and C18:1cis 9 (4.41%). The complete genome of strain ChDC OS43Twas 3,412,686 bp, and the G+C content was 38.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strain ChDC OS43Tand…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional profiling, molecular cloning, and functional analysis of C1 inhibitor, the main regulator of the complement system in black rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii.

C1-inhibitor (C1inh) plays a crucial role in assuring homeostasis and is the central regulator of the complement activation involved in immunity and inflammation. A C1-inhibitor gene from Sebastes schlegelii was identified and designated as SsC1inh. The identified genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were 6837 bp and 2161 bp, respectively. The genomic DNA possessed 11 exons, interrupted by 10 introns. The amino acid sequence possessed two immunoglobulin-like domains and a serpin domain. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the serpin domain of SsC1inh was highly conserved among analyzed species where the two immunoglobulin-like domains showed divergence. The distinctiveness of teleost C1inh from…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A manually annotated Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (kiwifruit) genome highlights the challenges associated with draft genomes and gene prediction in plants.

Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) ‘Hongyang’ draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models.A second genome of an A. chinensis (genotype Red5) was fully sequenced. This new sequence resulted in a 554.0 Mb assembly with all but 6 Mb assigned to pseudo-chromosomes. Pseudo-chromosomal comparisons showed a considerable number of translocation events have occurred following a whole genome duplication…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Virgibacillus phasianinus sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from faeces of a Swinhoe’s pheasant, Lophura swinhoii.

A rod-shaped, Gram-stain-positive, motile and aerobic bacterium, designated LM2416T, was isolated from faeces of Lophuras winhoii living in Seoul Grand Park, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LM2416T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus, sharing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Virgibacillus necropolis LMG 19488T (99.0?%), Virgibacillus carmonensis LMG 20964T (98.4?%), Virgibacillus arcticus Hal 1T (98.3?%) and Virgibacillus flavescens S1-20T (97.9?%). The isolate grew at 10-30?°C, pH 6-7 and 0-20?% (w/v) NaCl. Optimal growth was observed at 30?°C, pH 6-7 and 10?% (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C15?:?0. Polar…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of two novel bacteriophages infecting multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as a challenging nosocomial pathogen due to its rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance. We report characterization of two novel bacteriophages, PBAB08 and PBAB25, infecting clinically isolated, multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains. Both phages belonged to Myoviridae of Caudovirales as their morphology observed under an electron microscope. Their genomes were double stranded linear DNAs of 42,312 base pairs and 40,260 base pairs, respectively. The two phages were distinct from known Acinetobacter phages when whole genome sequences were compared. PBAB08 showed a 99% similarity with 57% sequence coverage to phage AB1 and PBAB25 showed a 97% similarity with…

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